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Quality Competition Versus Price Competition Goods: An Empirical Classification

Author

Listed:
  • E. Baldwin, Richard

    () (Graduate Institute)

  • Ito, Tadashi

    () (Okinawa University)

Abstract

Based on theoretical distinctions suggested by the heterogeneous firms trade model and the quality heterogeneous firms trade model, we classify exports at the HS 6-digit level as being characterised by either quality or price competition. We find a high proportions of quality-competition goods for the major EU countries and lower proportions for Canada, Australia and China. However, the overlap of these quality-competition goods is not large which suggests that the HS-6 digit data is too aggregate; firm-level data may be needed. Our findings suggest that dumping investigations must pay careful attention to the exact definition of products, and the study of technological gaps across nations by analysing composition of their export basket (Hausman, Huang and Rodrik 2007) should be interpreted with caution.

Suggested Citation

  • E. Baldwin, Richard & Ito, Tadashi, 2011. "Quality Competition Versus Price Competition Goods: An Empirical Classification," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 26, pages 110-135.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:integr:0532
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Lionel Fontagné & Guillaume Gaulier & Soledad Zignago, 2008. "Specialization across varieties and North-South competition," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 23, pages 51-91, January.
    2. Richard Baldwin & James Harrigan, 2011. "Zeros, Quality, and Space: Trade Theory and Trade Evidence," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(2), pages 60-88, May.
    3. Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-959, December.
    4. Baldwin, Richard, 1988. "Hyteresis in Import Prices: The Beachhead Effect," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 773-785, September.
    5. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
    6. Peter K. Schott, 2008. "The relative sophistication of Chinese exports," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 23, pages 5-49, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Angela Cheptea & Lionel Fontagné & Soledad Zignago, 2014. "European export performance," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 150(1), pages 25-58, February.
    2. Matthieu Crozet & Keith Head & Thierry Mayer, 2012. "Quality Sorting and Trade: Firm-level Evidence for French Wine," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 609-644.
    3. Benedetti Fasil, Cristiana & Borota, Teodora, 2013. "World trade patterns and prices: The role of productivity and quality heterogeneity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 68-81.
    4. Daniele Curzi & Lucia Pacca & Alessandro Olper, 2013. "Estimating Food Quality from Trade Data: An Empirical Assessment," LICOS Discussion Papers 33913, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    5. Nanno Mulder & Rodrigo Paiilacar & Soledad Zignago, 2009. "Market Positioning of Varieties in World Trade: is Latin America Losing Out on Asia?," Working Papers 2009-09, CEPII research center.
    6. Rollo, Valentina, 2012. "Determinants of Tanzanian export prices," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6225, The World Bank.
    7. Unjung Whang, 2016. "Skilled-Labor Intensity Differences Across Firms, Endogenous Product Quality, and Wage Inequality," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 251-292, April.
    8. Tadashi Ito & Toshihiro Okubo, 2016. "The Impact of the Euro on the Quality of Trade: Evidence from the European Union," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 84(4), pages 506-527, July.
    9. Sugita, Yoichi & Teshima, Kensuke & Seira, Enrique, 2016. "Assortative matching of exporters and importers," IDE Discussion Papers 610, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    10. Robert C. Feenstra & John Romalis, 2014. "International Prices and Endogenous Quality," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 129(2), pages 477-527.
    11. Michael J. Ferrantino & Robert M. Feinberg & Lauren Deason, 2012. "Quality Competition and Pricing-to-Market: A Unified Framework for the Analysis of Bilateral Unit Values," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 78(3), pages 860-877, January.
    12. Curzi, Daniele & Pacca, Lucia, 2015. "Price, quality and trade costs in the food sector," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 147-158.
    13. Michael Ferrantino & Robert M. Feinberg & Lauren Deason, 2009. "Quality competition, Pricing-To-Market and Non-Tariff measures: A Unified Framework For the Analysis of Bilateral Unit Values," Working Papers 2009-03, American University, Department of Economics.
    14. Benjamin R. Mandel, 2013. "Chinese exports and U.S. import prices," Staff Reports 591, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    15. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/10148 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Ito, Tadashi, 2012. "Revisiting the determinants of unit values," IDE Discussion Papers 356, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    17. Bilanakosa, Christos & Heywood, John S. & Sessions, John & Theodoropoulos, Nikolaos, 2017. "Worker Training and Quality Competition," GLO Discussion Paper Series 137, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    18. Antoniades, Alexis, 2015. "Heterogeneous Firms, Quality, and Trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 263-273.
    19. Susan N. Houseman & Christopher J. Kurz & Paul Lengermann & Benjamin R. Mandel, 2010. "Offshoring bias in U.S. manufacturing: implications for productivity and value added," International Finance Discussion Papers 1007, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Quality vs Price Competition; Heterogeneous Firms Trade Model;

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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