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A Lobbying Approach to Evaluating the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

Author

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  • Yael V. Hochberg
  • Paola Sapienza
  • Annette Vissing-Jorgensen

Abstract

We evaluate the net benefits of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) for shareholders by studying the lobbying behavior of investors and corporate insiders to affect the final implemented rules under the Act. Investors lobbied overwhelmingly in favor of strict implementation of SOX, while corporate insiders and business groups lobbied against strict implementation. We identify the firms most affected by the law as those whose insiders lobbied against strict implementation, and compare their returns to the returns of less affected firms. Cumulative returns during the four and a half months leading up to passage of SOX were approximately 10 percent higher for corporations whose insiders lobbied against one or more of the SOX disclosure-related provisions than for similar non-lobbying firms. Analysis of returns in the post-passage implementation period indicates that investors' positive expectations with regards to the effects of the law were warranted for the enhanced disclosure provisions of SOX.

Suggested Citation

  • Yael V. Hochberg & Paola Sapienza & Annette Vissing-Jorgensen, 2007. "A Lobbying Approach to Evaluating the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002," NBER Working Papers 12952, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12952
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Lo, Kin, 2003. "Economic consequences of regulated changes in disclosure: the case of executive compensation," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 285-314, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Becker, Bo & Cronqvist, Henrik & Fahlenbrach, Rüdiger, 2011. "Estimating the Effects of Large Shareholders Using a Geographic Instrument," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(04), pages 907-942, September.
    2. Dongyoung Lee, 2017. "Corporate Social Responsibility and Management Forecast Accuracy," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 140(2), pages 353-367, January.
    3. Adelino, Manuel & Dinc, I. Serdar, 2014. "Corporate distress and lobbying: Evidence from the Stimulus Act," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(2), pages 256-272.
    4. repec:eee:corfin:v:46:y:2017:i:c:p:411-441 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Hill, Matthew D. & Kubick, Thomas R. & Brandon Lockhart, G. & Wan, Huishan, 2013. "The effectiveness and valuation of political tax minimization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2836-2849.
    6. Bertomeu, Jeremy & Magee, Robert P., 2015. "Mandatory disclosure and asymmetry in financial reporting," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 284-299.
    7. repec:kap:pubcho:v:172:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11127-017-0446-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. repec:eee:jfinec:v:125:y:2017:i:2:p:389-415 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Gao, Meng & Huang, Jiekun, 2016. "Capitalizing on Capitol Hill: Informed trading by hedge fund managers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 121(3), pages 521-545.
    10. repec:eee:jaecon:v:63:y:2017:i:2:p:358-384 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Ranjan D’Mello & Xinghua Gao & Yonghong Jia, 2017. "Internal control and internal capital allocation: evidence from internal capital markets of multi-segment firms," Review of Accounting Studies, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 251-287, March.
    12. Luigi Zingales, 2009. "The Future of Securities Regulation," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 391-425, May.
    13. Blau, Benjamin M. & Brough, Tyler J. & Thomas, Diana W., 2013. "Corporate lobbying, political connections, and the bailout of banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3007-3017.
    14. DeFond, Mark & Zhang, Jieying, 2014. "A review of archival auditing research," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 275-326.
    15. John M. de Figueiredo & Brian Kelleher Richter, 2013. "Advancing the Empirical Research on Lobbying," NBER Working Papers 19698, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Croci, Ettore & Pantzalis, Christos & Park, Jung Chul & Petmezas, Dimitris, 2017. "The role of corporate political strategies in M&As," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 260-287.
    17. Bo Becker & Daniel Bergstresser & Guhan Subramanian, 2013. "Does Shareholder Proxy Access Improve Firm Value? Evidence from the Business Roundtable's Challenge," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56(1), pages 127-160.
    18. Stefan Arping & Zacharias Sautner, 2010. "Did the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 make Firms less Opaque? Evidence from Analyst Earnings Forecasts," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 10-129/2/DSF 5, Tinbergen Institute.
    19. Cohen, Alma & Wang, Charles C.Y., 2013. "How do staggered boards affect shareholder value? Evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(3), pages 627-641.
    20. Ahmed Tahoun & Florin P. Vasvari, 2016. "Political Lending," Working Papers Series 47, Institute for New Economic Thinking.
    21. Alexander, Cindy R. & Bauguess, Scott W. & Bernile, Gennaro & Lee, Yoon-Ho Alex & Marietta-Westberg, Jennifer, 2013. "Economic effects of SOX Section 404 compliance: A corporate insider perspective," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 267-290.
    22. Xuan Tam & Eric Young & bo sun, 2014. "Regulatory Intensity, Crash Risk, and the Business Cycle," 2014 Meeting Papers 416, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    23. Bertomeu, Jeremy & Magee, Robert P., 2011. "From low-quality reporting to financial crises: Politics of disclosure regulation along the economic cycle," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 209-227.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G3 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • K22 - Law and Economics - - Regulation and Business Law - - - Business and Securities Law

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