Usury Ceilings, Relationships and Bank Lending Behavior: Evidence from Nineteenth Century
Few pieces of economic regulation are ubiquitous as usury limits. Similarly, few economic principles are as widely accepted as the belief that interference with freely contracted prices leads to market distortions, and many studies of financial markets find that usury limits negatively affect credit availability. This study shows that when no regulatory authority monitors and stands ready to punish violators of the usury limit when intermediaries and borrowers form long-term relationships, banks and borrowers regularly contract for interest rates in excess of the usury ceiling. Time series analysis reveals limited effects on credit availability when market rates exceed the usury ceiling. Cross-sectional analysis of individual loan contracts also shows that the positive effect of a long-term relationship offsets the negative effect of the usury limit on credit availability.
|Date of creation:||Nov 2005|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as Bodenhorn, Howard, 2007. "Usury ceilings and bank lending behavior: Evidence from nineteenth century New York," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 179-202, April.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Boot, Arnoud W. A., 2000. "Relationship Banking: What Do We Know?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-25, January.
- Sharpe, Steven A, 1990.
" Asymmetric Information, Bank Lending, and Implicit Contracts: A Stylized Model of Customer Relationships,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1069-87, September.
- Steven A. Sharpe, 1989. "Asymmetric information, bank lending, and implicit contracts: a stylized model of customer relationships," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 70, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Ostas, James R, 1976. "Effects of Usury Ceilings in the Mortgage Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(3), pages 821-34, June.
- Donato Masciandaro, 2001. "In Offense of Usury Laws: Microfoundations of Illegal Credit Contracts," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 193-215, November.
- Peterson, Richard L, 1983. " Usury Laws and Consumer Credit: A Note," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1299-1304, September.
- Gary S. Becker, 1974.
"Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach,"
in: Essays in the Economics of Crime and Punishment, pages 1-54
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Elyasiani, Elyas & Goldberg, Lawrence G., 2004. "Relationship lending: a survey of the literature," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 315-330.
- Wolken, John D & Navratil, Frank J, 1981. "The Economic Impact of the Federal Credit Union Usury Ceiling," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 36(5), pages 1157-68, December.
- Rajan, Raghuram G, 1992. " Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's-Length Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1367-400, September.
- Rudolph C. Blitz & Millard F. Long, 1965. "The Economics of Usury Regulation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 608.
- Boyes, W J & Furnish, Dale Beck, 1984. "A Note on the Use of Incorporation as an Escape from Usury Ceilings," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(3), pages 367-72, March.
- Peter Temin & Hans-Joachim Voth, 2008.
"Interest Rate Restrictions in a Natural Experiment: Loan Allocation and the Change in the Usury Laws in 1714,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(528), pages 743-758, 04.
- Joachim Voth & Peter Temin, 2005. "Interest rate restrictions in a natural experiment: loan allocation and the change in the usury laws in 1714," Economics Working Papers 858, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1987. "The Causes and Consequences of the Dependence of Quality on Price," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 1-48, March.
- Elsas, Ralf, 2005. "Empirical determinants of relationship lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 32-57, January.
- Howard Bodenhorn, 2004.
"Bank Chartering and Political Corruption in Antebellum New York: Free Banking as Reform,"
NBER Working Papers
10479, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Howard Bodenhorn, 2006. "Bank Chartering and Political Corruption in Antebellum New York. Free Banking as Reform," NBER Chapters, in: Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America's Economic History, pages 231-258 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ernst-Ludwig von Thadden, 1995. "Long-Term Contracts, Short-Term Investment and Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(4), pages 557-575.
- Marco A. Espinosa-Vega & William C. Hunter, 1994. "Financial repression and economic development," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Sep, pages 1-11.
- Jaffee, Dwight M & Modigliani, Franco, 1969. "A Theory and Test of Credit Rationing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(5), pages 850-72, December.
- Bodenhorn, Howard, 2003.
" Short-Term Loans and Long-Term Relationships: Relationship Lending in Early America,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(4), pages 485-505, August.
- Howard Bodenhorn, 2001. "Short-Term Loans and Long-Term Relationships: Relationship Lending in Early America," NBER Historical Working Papers 0137, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bodenhorn, Howard, 1992. "Capital Mobility and Financial Integration in Antebellum America," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 52(03), pages 585-610, September.
- Kahn, James A, 1985. "Another Look at Free Banking in the United States [New Evidence on the Free Banking Era]," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 881-85, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:11734. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.