IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Income Distribution, Poverty Measures and Trade Shocks: A Computable General Equilibrium Model of a Archetype Developing Country


  • Decaluwé, Bernard


  • Patry, André


  • Savard, Luc



In this paper we use a computable general equilibrium model to study the impact of a trade shock and a tariff reform on household poverty for an archetype developing country. Unlike other studies, we present the income distribution of each household group as a Beta statistical distribution. Also, the income distributions are endogenous in this model. Following a change in the mean income, the income distribution will shift proportionally by the same variation. In contrast of other study, this paper presents the poverty lines as being endogenous. With this specification, the poverty line will change following a variation in relative prices. With the new distributions and poverty line, the poverty levels of the base year are compared with the ex-post values. The Foster, Greer and Thorbecke's (1984) Pa class measures are used to quantify the households' poverty levels. We consider two scenarios. The first is a 30% fall in the world price of the country's export crop and the second is a reduction of 50% in the country's import tariffs. For the fall in the world price of the country's export crop, results indicate a drop in all household incomes and a decrease in the poverty line. A unilateral trade liberalization also has negative consequences on all household incomes. As in the first simulation, the poverty line decreases with a unilateral trade liberalization. The effect of the poverty line is non-negligible in both simulations. In the trade liberalization simulation, the poverty line effect counters the income effect in most cases (Pa. improves). In the other simulation, the poverty line effect attenuates the decrease in the poverty measures.

Suggested Citation

  • Decaluwé, Bernard & Patry, André & Savard, Luc, 1998. "Income Distribution, Poverty Measures and Trade Shocks: A Computable General Equilibrium Model of a Archetype Developing Country," Cahiers de recherche 9812, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
  • Handle: RePEc:lvl:laeccr:9812

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Fortin, Bernard & Marceau, Nicolas & Savard, Luc, 1997. "Taxation, wage controls and the informal sector," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 293-312, November.
    2. Benjamin, Nancy, 1996. "Adjustment and income distribution in an agricultural economy: A general equilibrium analysis of Cameroon," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 1003-1013, June.
    3. Atkinson, A B, 1987. "On the Measurement of Poverty," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(4), pages 749-764, July.
    4. Shoven, John B. & Whalley, John, 1972. "A general equilibrium calculation of the effects of differential taxation of income from capital in the U.S," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3-4), pages 281-321, November.
    5. Shoven, John B & Whalley, John, 1984. "Applied General-Equilibrium Models of Taxation and International Trade: An Introduction and Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 22(3), pages 1007-1051, September.
    6. Thorbecke, Erik, 1991. "Adjustment, growth and income distribution in Indonesia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 19(11), pages 1595-1614, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Claudio R. Kart E., 2004. "How Can Tax Policies and Macroeconomic Shocks Affect the Poor? A Quantitative Assessment Using a Computable General Equilibrium Framework for Colombia," Ensayos sobre Política Económica, Banco de la Republica de Colombia, vol. 22(46-2), pages 450-519, Diciembre.
    2. Naranpanawa, Athula & Bandara, Jayatilleke S. & Selvanathan, Saroja, 2011. "Trade and poverty nexus: A case study of Sri Lanka," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 328-346, March.
    3. Claudio R Karl, 2004. "How Can Tax Policies And Macroeconomic Shocks Affect The Poor? A Quantitative Assessment Using A Computable General Equilibrium Framework For Colombia," ENSAYOS SOBRE POLÍTICA ECONÓMICA, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ESPE, December.
    4. Jean-Marc Montaud, 2003. "Dotations en capital et pauvreté des ménages au Burkina Faso : une analyse en Équilibre Général Calculable," Revue d’économie du développement, De Boeck Université, vol. 11(1), pages 43-71.
    5. repec:ibn:ijefaa:v:9:y:2017:i:4:p:79-89 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Computable General Equilibrium Model; Poverty Measures; Income Distribution;

    JEL classification:

    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lvl:laeccr:9812. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Manuel Paradis). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.