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The Effect of Ownership and Competitive Pressure on Firm Performance in Transition Countries. Micro Evidence from Bulgaria, Romania and Poland

Author

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  • Saul Estrin
  • Jozef Konings
  • Zbigniew Zolkiewski
  • Manuela Angelucci

Abstract

This paper uses a unique representative firm level data set to analyse the effect of domestic and international competitive pressure and ownership changes in three emerging economies, Bulgaria Poland and Romania. Our main findings can be summarized as follows: Domestic competitive pressure, measured by market structure, and increased import penetration are associated with higher firm performance in Poland irrespective of the ownership structure of firms. Furthermore the positive effects of increased import competition are reinforced for foreign owned firms. In contrast, in Bulgaria and Romania, increased import penetration is associated with lower firm performance, while there is some evidence that more competitive market structures is associated with higher total factor productivity. However, these effects depend on the ownership structure of firms, which suggests the existence of complementarities between competitive pressure and ownership changes. The results also indicate that privatisation has positive effects on firm performance. In particular, domestic private firms and foreign owned firms outperform state owned firms. Furthermore, there is evidence that foreign owned firms do better than domestically owned private firms especially in Bulgaria and Poland. The results on ownership are somewhat weaker for Romania.

Suggested Citation

  • Saul Estrin & Jozef Konings & Zbigniew Zolkiewski & Manuela Angelucci, 2001. "The Effect of Ownership and Competitive Pressure on Firm Performance in Transition Countries. Micro Evidence from Bulgaria, Romania and Poland," LICOS Discussion Papers 10401, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  • Handle: RePEc:lic:licosd:10401
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Mitra, Pradeep & Muravyev, Alexander & Schaffer, Mark E, 2008. "Convergence in Institutions and Market Outcomes: Cross-Country and Time-Series Evidence from the BEEPS Surveys in Transition Economies," IZA Discussion Papers 3863, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Trilochan Tripathy & Debadutta Sahoo & Ankit Kesharwani & Ajay Kumar Mishra, 2016. "Competition, intellectual capital efficiency and firms' performance outcome in India: a structural equation modelling," International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 13(1), pages 72-95.
    3. Saul Estrin & Alan A. Bevan & Boris Kuznetsov & Mark E. Schaffer & Manuela Angelucci & Julian Fennema & Giovanni Mangiarotti, 2001. "The Determinants of Privatised Enterprise Performance in Russia," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 452, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    4. Jan Svejnar & Evzen Kocenda, 2002. "The Effects of Ownership Forms and Concentration on Firm Performance after Large-Scale Privatization," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 471, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    5. Morar Triandafil, Cristina & Poanta, Dorina, 2011. "Central and East European Corporate Finance: Between Commonality and Heterogeneity," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(3), pages 132-161, September.
    6. Hagemejer, Jan, 2007. "Factors driving the firms decision to export. Firm-level evidence from Poland," MPRA Paper 17717, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Juan Zalduendo, 2003. "Enterprise Restructuring and Transition; Evidence From the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia," IMF Working Papers 03/136, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Jan Hanousek & Evzen Kocenda & Jan Svejnar, 2004. "Ownership, Control and Corporate Performance after Large-Scale Privatization," Microeconomics 0406002, EconWPA.
    9. Ralitza Dimova, 2003. "The Impact on Structural Reforms on Employment Growth and Labour Productivity: Evidence from Bulgaria and Romania," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2003-600, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    10. repec:bla:worlde:v:40:y:2017:i:9:p:2007-2030 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Panagiotis Staikouras, 2004. "Structural Reform Policy: Privatisation and Beyond—The Case of Greece," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 373-398, May.
    12. Pier Carlo Padoan & Giuseppe De Arcangelis & Giovanni Ferri, 2002. "Firms’ Clustering and SEE Export Performance: Lessons from the Italian Experience," wiiw Balkan Observatory Working Papers 21, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    13. Maryanchyk Ivan, "undated". "Market Structure and Profitability in a Transition Economy: Ukrainian Case," EERC Working Paper Series 03-06e, EERC Research Network, Russia and CIS.
    14. Robert Feinberg & Mieke Meurs, 2005. "Market Reform, Infrastructure and Exchange Rate Passthrough in Central and Eastern Europe," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 21-32.
    15. Sprenger, Carsten, 2011. "The choice of ownership structure: Evidence from Russian mass privatization," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 260-277, June.
    16. Tidiane Kinda, 2012. "Foreign ownership, sales to multinationals and firm efficiency: the case of Brazil, Morocco, Pakistan, South Africa and Vietnam," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(6), pages 551-555, April.
    17. Stefan Lutz & Oleksandr Talavera, 2004. "Do Ukrainian Firms Benefit from FDI?," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 77-98, June.
    18. Andrei Medvedev & Alena Zemplinerová, 2005. "Does Competition Improve Performance? Evidence from the Czech Manufacturing Industries," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2005(4), pages 317-330.
    19. Okten, Cagla & Arin, K. Peren, 2006. "The Effects of Privatization on Efficiency: How Does Privatization Work?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1537-1556, September.
    20. Mathilde Maurel, 2001. "Investment, Efficiency, and Credit Rationing: Evidence from Hungarian Panel Data," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 403, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    21. Patricia Augier & Michael Gasiorek & Gonzalo Varela, 2007. "Determinants of Productivity in Morocco - The Role of Trade?," CARIS Working Papers 02, Centre for the Analysis of Regional Integration at Sussex, University of Sussex.
    22. S. Dobbelaere, 2003. "Ownership, Firm Size and Rent Sharing in a Transition Country," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 03/170, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    23. Alena Zemplinerova, 2010. "Competition policy and economic analysis: What can we learn from firm and industry data?," CERGE-EI Books, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague, edition 1, number b07, November.
    24. Dobbelaere, Sabien, 2004. "Ownership, firm size and rent sharing in Bulgaria," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 165-189, April.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    competitive pressure; privatisation; firm performance;

    JEL classification:

    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • D40 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - General
    • D42 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Monopoly
    • J42 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets
    • L10 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - General
    • L33 - Industrial Organization - - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise - - - Comparison of Public and Private Enterprise and Nonprofit Institutions; Privatization; Contracting Out
    • P23 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population
    • P31 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions

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