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The Financial Requirements of Achieving Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment


  • Caren A. Grown
  • Chandrika Bahadur
  • Jessie Handbury
  • Diane Elson


Although the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have been ratified in global and national forums, they have not yet been incorporated into operational planning within governments or international organizations. The weak link between the policies and the investments needed for their implementation is one barrier to progress. An assessment of the resources required is a critical first step in formulating and implementing strategies to achieve the MDGs. This is especially true for policies to promote gender equality and empower women. Although enough is known about such policies to implement them successfully, the costs of such interventions are not systematically calculated and integrated into country-level budgeting processes. Using country-level data, the paper estimates the costs of interventions aimed at promoting gender equality and women's empowerment in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Ghana, Tanzania, and Uganda. It then uses these estimates to calculate the costs of such interventions in other low-income countries. Finally, the paper projects the financing gap for interventions that aim directly at achieving gender equality, first for the five countries, and subsequently for all low-income countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Caren A. Grown & Chandrika Bahadur & Jessie Handbury & Diane Elson, 2006. "The Financial Requirements of Achieving Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_467, Levy Economics Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:lev:wrkpap:wp_467

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Stephanie Seguino & Caren A. Grown, 2006. "Feminist-Kaleckian Macroeconomic Policy for Developing Countries," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_446, Levy Economics Institute.
    2. Haddad, Lawrence & Hoddinott, John & Alderman, Harold & DEC, 1994. "Intrahousehold resource allocation : an overview," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1255, The World Bank.
    3. Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Maluccio, John A., 2000. "Intrahousehold allocation and gender relations," FCND discussion papers 84, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Saito, K.A. & Spurling, D., 1992. "Developing Agricultural Extension for Women Farmers," World Bank - Discussion Papers 156, World Bank.
    5. World Bank, 2003. "Cambodia - Enhancing Service Delivery through Improved Resource Allocation and Institutional Reform : Integrated Fiduciary Assessment and Public Expenditure Review," World Bank Other Operational Studies 14635, The World Bank.
    6. Devarajan, Shantayanan & Miller, Margaret J. & Swanson, Eric V., 2002. "Goals for development : history, prospects and costs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2819, The World Bank.
    7. Quisumbing, Agnes R., 1995. "Gender differences in agricultural productivity," FCND discussion papers 5, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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    Cited by:

    1. Manisha Desai, 2010. "Hope in Hard Times: Women’s Empowerment and Human Development," Human Development Research Papers (2009 to present) HDRP-2010-14, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
    2. Caren A. Grown, 2006. "Quick Impact Initiatives For Gender Equality: A Menu of Options," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_462, Levy Economics Institute.
    3. Elaine Unterhalter & Amy North, 2013. "Girls’ schooling and the global education and development agenda," Chapters,in: Handbook of Research on Gender and Economic Life, chapter 25, pages 410-420 Edward Elgar Publishing.

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