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Price Competition or Tacit Collusion

Author

Listed:
  • Makoto Yano

    () (Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University)

  • Takashi Komatsubara

    () (Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University)

Abstract

Every now and then, we observe a fierce price war in a real world market, through which competing firms end up with a Bertrand-like price competition equilibrium. Despite this, very little has been known in the existing literature as to why a price competition market is formed. We address this question in the context of a choice between engaging in price competition and holding a price leader. Focusing on a duopoly market, we demonstrate that if supply is tight relative to demand, and if the cost differential between firms is reasonably large, a price competition market is formed non-cooperatively.

Suggested Citation

  • Makoto Yano & Takashi Komatsubara, 2012. "Price Competition or Tacit Collusion," KIER Working Papers 807, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:kyo:wpaper:807
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    File URL: http://www.kier.kyoto-u.ac.jp/DP/DP807.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Amir, Rabah & Stepanova, Anna, 2006. "Second-mover advantage and price leadership in Bertrand duopoly," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 1-20, April.
    2. Dastidar, Krishnendu Ghosh, 1995. "On the Existence of Pure Strategy Bertrand Equilibrium," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 5(1), pages 19-32, January.
    3. Dastidar, Krishnendu Ghosh, 1997. "Comparing Cournot and Bertrand in a Homogeneous Product Market," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 205-212, July.
    4. Daisuke Hirata & Toshihiro Matsumura, 2011. "Price leadership in a homogeneous product market," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 104(3), pages 199-217, November.
    5. van Damme, Eric & Hurkens, Sjaak, 2004. "Endogenous price leadership," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 404-420, May.
    6. Boccard, N. & Wauthy, X.Y., 2010. "Equilibrium vertical differentiation in a Bertrand model with capacity precommitment," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 288-297, May.
    7. Roy Chowdhury, Prabal, 2009. "Bertrand competition with non-rigid capacity constraints," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 103(1), pages 55-58, April.
    8. Novshek, William & Chowdhury, Prabal Roy, 2003. "Bertrand equilibria with entry: limit results," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 795-808, June.
    9. Ishibashi, Ikuo, 2008. "Collusive price leadership with capacity constraints," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 704-715, May.
    10. Bagh, Adib, 2010. "Pure strategy equilibria in Bertrand games with discontinuous demand and asymmetric tie-breaking rules," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 108(3), pages 277-279, September.
    11. Krishnendu Dastidar, 2001. "Collusive outcomes in price competition," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 73(1), pages 81-93, February.
    12. Vives, Xavier, 1990. "Nash equilibrium with strategic complementarities," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 305-321.
    13. Chaudhuri, Prabal Ray, 1996. "The contestable outcome as a Bertrand equilibrium," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 237-242, February.
    14. Wambach, Achim, 1999. "Bertrand competition under cost uncertainty," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(7), pages 941-951, October.
    15. repec:spr:portec:v:2:y:2003:i:1:d:10.1007_s10258-002-0018-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Dixon, Huw, 1990. "Bertrand-Edgeworth Equilibria when Firms Avoid Turning Customers Away," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(2), pages 131-146, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Attila Tasnádi, 2016. "Endogenous timing of moves in Bertrand–Edgeworth triopolies," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 12(4), pages 317-334, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Keywords: Price Competition; Price Leader; Market Organization Game;

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

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