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The Impact of United States Sanctions on the Myanmar Garment Industry

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  • Kudo, Toshihiro

Abstract

The United States imposed trade sanctions against the military regime in Myanmar in July 2003. The import ban damaged the garment industry in particular. This industry exported nearly half of its products to the United States, and more than eighty percent of United States imports from Myanmar had been clothes. The garment industry was probably the main target of the sanctions. Nevertheless, the impact on the garment industry and its workers has not been accurately evaluated or closely examined. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the sanctions and to further understand the present situation. This is done using several sources of information, including the author's field and questionnaire surveys. This paper also describes the process of selection and polarization underway in the garment industry, an industry that now has more severe competition fueled by the sanctions. Through such a process, the impact was inflicted disproportionately on small and medium-sized domestic firms and their workers.

Suggested Citation

  • Kudo, Toshihiro, 2005. "The Impact of United States Sanctions on the Myanmar Garment Industry," IDE Discussion Papers 42, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  • Handle: RePEc:jet:dpaper:dpaper42
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    File URL: https://ir.ide.go.jp/?action=repository_action_common_download&item_id=38124&item_no=1&attribute_id=22&file_no=1
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Tin Htoo NAING & Yap Su FEI, 2015. "Multinationals, Technology and Regional Linkages in Myanmar's Clothing Industry," Working Papers DP-2015-14, Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA).
    2. Meyer, Klaus E. & Thein, Htwe Htwe, 2014. "Business under adverse home country institutions: The case of international sanctions against Myanmar," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 156-171.
    3. Koji Kubo, 2014. "Myanmar's non-resource export potential after the lifting of economic sanctions: a gravity model analysis," Asia-Pacific Development Journal, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), vol. 21(1), pages 1-22, June.
    4. Yamagata, Tatsufumi, 2007. "Prospects for Development of the Garment Industry in Developing Countries: What Has Happened Since the MFA Phase-Out?," IDE Discussion Papers 101, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    5. Myo Myo Myint & Rajah Rasiah, 2012. "Foreign Capital and Garment Export from Myanmar: Implications for the Labour Process," Institutions and Economies (formerly known as International Journal of Institutions and Economies), Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, vol. 4(3), pages 151-172, October.
    6. Kudo, Toshihiro, 2013. "Myanmar's apparel industry in the new international environment : prospects and challenges," IDE Discussion Papers 430, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    7. Kudo, Toshihiro, 2006. "Myanmar's Economic Relations with China: Can China Support the Myanmar Economy?," IDE Discussion Papers 66, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Myanmar (Burma); United States; Sanction; Garment industry; Apparel industry; Economic sanctions; ミャンマー; アメリカ合衆国; アパレル産業; 経済制裁;

    JEL classification:

    • F19 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Other
    • L60 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - General
    • O14 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology

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