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North Korea's External Economic Relations

Author

Listed:
  • Stephan Haggard

    () (University of California, San Diego Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies)

  • Marcus Noland

    () (Peterson Institute for International Economics)

Abstract

North Korea's international transactions have grown since the 1990s famine period. Illicit transactions appear to account for a declining share of trade. Direct investment is rising, but the county remains significantly dependent on aid to finance imports. Interdependence with South Korea and China is rising, but the nature of integration with these two partners is very different: China's interaction with North Korea appears to be increasingly on market-oriented terms, while South Korea's involvement has a growing noncommercial or aid component. These patterns have implications for North Korea's development, the effectiveness of UN sanctions, and its bargaining behavior in nuclear negotiations.

Suggested Citation

  • Stephan Haggard & Marcus Noland, 2007. "North Korea's External Economic Relations," Working Paper Series WP07-7, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:iie:wpaper:wp07-7
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    File URL: https://piie.com/publications/working-papers/north-koreas-external-economic-relations
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Haggard, Stephan & Noland, Marcus, 2009. "Famine in North Korea Redux?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 384-395, September.
    2. Marcus Noland, 2000. "Avoiding the Apocalypse: The Future of the Two Koreas," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 94.
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    Cited by:

    1. Haggard, Stephan & Noland, Marcus, 2010. "Reform from below: Behavioral and institutional change in North Korea," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 133-152, February.
    2. ., 2010. "North Korea's Economic Reform and Inter-Korean Economic Relations," Chapters,in: The Korean Economy in Transition, chapter 7 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Stephan Haggard & Marcus Noland, 2009. "The Political Economy of North Korea: Implications for Denuclearization and Proliferation," Economics Study Area Working Papers 104, East-West Center, Economics Study Area.
    4. Stephan Haggard & Marcus Noland & Erik Weeks, 2008. "North Korea on the Precipice of Famine," Policy Briefs PB08-6, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    5. Kimberly Ann Elliott, 2003. "Economic Leverage and the North Korean Nuclear Crisis," Policy Briefs PB03-03, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    6. Chang, Yoonok & Haggard, Stephan & Noland, Marcus, 2009. "Exit polls: Refugee assessments of North Korea's transition," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 144-150, March.
    7. Sato, Sumie & Fukushige, Mototsugu, 2011. "The North Korean economy: Escape from import-led growth," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 76-83, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    North Korea; sanctions; political economy; aid; transitional economies;

    JEL classification:

    • F5 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy
    • P3 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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