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Empirical Evidence on the Role of Non Linear Wholesale Pricing and Vertical Restraints on Cost Pass-Through

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  • Bonnet, Céline
  • Dubois, Pierre
  • Villas-Boas, Sofia B.

Abstract

How a cost shock is passed through into final consumer prices may relate to nominal price stickiness and rigidities, the existence of non adjustable cost components, strategic mark-up adjustments, or other contract terms along the supply distribution chain. This paper presents a simple framework to assess the potential role of non linear pricing contracts and vertical restraints such as resale price maintenance or wholesale price discrimination in the supply chain in explaining the degree of pass-through from upstream cost shocks in the ground coffee category to downstream retail prices. We do so in the German coffee market where both upstream and downstream firms make pricing decisions allowing for non linear pricing and vertical restraints. Using counterfactual simulations of an upstream coffee cost shock, we find that the existence of resale price maintenance between manufacturers and retailers increases pass through rate by more than 10 points relative to the case when this assumption is not allowed with non linear pricing or when double marginalization along the distribution chain is present. The intuition for our findings is that resale price maintenance restrictions make it less possible for retailers to perform strategic mark-up adjustments when faced with a cost shock. We also find that the less concentrated upstream sector, and also when faced with less elastic demands, the larger the role of vertical restraints in preventing retailers to perform strategic mark-up adjustments, and thus the higher the pass-through increases.
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(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • Bonnet, Céline & Dubois, Pierre & Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2009. "Empirical Evidence on the Role of Non Linear Wholesale Pricing and Vertical Restraints on Cost Pass-Through," IDEI Working Papers 565, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse, revised Sep 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:ide:wpaper:21003
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    Cited by:

    1. Gaudin, Germain, 2016. "Pass-through, vertical contracts, and bargains," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 1-4.
    2. Allais, Olivier & Etilé, Fabrice & Lecocq, Sébastien, 2015. "Mandatory labels, taxes and market forces: An empirical evaluation of fat policies," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 27-44.
    3. Takanori Adachi & Muhammad Michal Fabinger, 2017. "Multi-Dimensional Pass-Through, Incidence, and the Welfare Burden of Taxation in Oligopoly," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-1040, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    4. Natalia Fabra & Mar Reguant, 2014. "Pass-Through of Emissions Costs in Electricity Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(9), pages 2872-2899, September.
    5. Haucap, Justus & Heimeshoff, Ulrich & Klein, Gordon J. & Rickert, Dennis & Wey, Christian, 2013. "Inter-format competition among retailers: The role of private label products in market delineation," DICE Discussion Papers 101, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    6. Smith, Howard & Thomassen, Øyvind, 2012. "Multi-category demand and supermarket pricing," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 309-314.
    7. Villas-Boas, Sofia B & Bonnet, Celine, 2016. "Asymmetric Consumer Price Responses and Asymmetric Cost Pass-Through," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt172676f9, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
    8. Hellerstein, Rebecca & Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2010. "Outsourcing and pass-through," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 170-183, July.
    9. Xulia González, 2015. "Empirical Regularities in the Vertical Restraints of Manuacturing Firms," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 43(2), pages 181-194, June.
    10. Bonnet, Céline & Réquillart, Vincent, 2013. "Tax incidence with strategic firms in the soft drink market," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 77-88.
    11. Takanori Adachi & Michal Fabinger, 2017. "Multi-Dimensional Pass-Through, Incidence, and the Welfare Burden of Taxation in Oligopoly," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-1040, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    12. Durevall, Dick, 2017. "Cost Pass-Through in the Swedish Coffee Market," HUI Working Papers 120, HUI Research.
    13. Olivier Allais & Fabrice Etilé & Sébastien Lecocq, 2012. "Mandatory labels, taxes and market forces: An empirical evaluation of fat policies," Working Papers halshs-00736556, HAL.
    14. Bonnet, Céline & Réquillart, Vincent, 2013. "Sugar Policy Reform, Tax Policy and Price Transmission in the Soft Drink Industry," TSE Working Papers 13-373, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    15. Durevall, Dick, 2017. "Cost Pass-Through in the Swedish Coffee Market," Working Papers in Economics 697, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    16. Hovhannisyan, Vardges & Stiegert, Kyle W., 2011. "Vertical Channel Analysis of the U.S. Milk Market," 2011 Annual Meeting, July 24-26, 2011, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 103631, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    17. Olivier Allais; & Fabrice Etile; & Sebastien Lecocq, 2012. "Mandatory labelling, nutritional taxes and market forces: An empirical evaluation of fat policies in the French fromage blanc and yogurt market," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 12/14, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
    18. Bonnet, Céline & Corre, Tifenn & Réquillart, Vincent, 2015. "Price Transmission in Food Chains: The Case of the Dairy Industry," TSE Working Papers 15-563, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    19. Bonnet, Céline & Réquillart, Vincent, 2011. "Strategic Pricing and Health Price Policies," IDEI Working Papers 671, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse, revised Jul 2012.
    20. Emran, M.Shahe & Mookherjee, Dilip & Shilpi, Forhad & Uddin, M. Helal, 2017. "Credit Rationing and Pass-Through in Supply Chains: Theory and Evidence from Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 79844, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    21. Haucap, Justus & Heimeshoff, Ulrich & Klein, Gordon J. & Rickert, Dennis & Wey, Christian, 2013. "Bargaining power in manufacturer-retailer relationships," DICE Discussion Papers 107, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    22. Duso, Tomaso & Szücs, Florian, 2017. "Market power and heterogeneous pass-through in German electricity retail," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 354-372.
    23. Adachi, Takanori & Ebina, Takeshi, 2014. "Double marginalization and cost pass-through: Weyl–Fabinger and Cowan meet Spengler and Bresnahan–Reiss," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 170-175.
    24. M. Shahe Emran & Dilip Mookherjee & Forhad Shilpi & M. Helal Uddin, "undated". "Do Consumers Benefit from Supply Chain Intermediaries? Evidence from a Policy Experiment in Edible Oils Market in Bangladesh," Boston University - Department of Economics - The Institute for Economic Development Working Papers Series dp-273, Boston University - Department of Economics.
    25. Li, Xun & Wang, Rui & Lopez, Rigoberto A., 2016. "Energy Shock and Price Adjustment: National Brands vs. Private Labels of Retail Milk Products," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 235613, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

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    JEL classification:

    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L41 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices

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