The Bologna Process: How Student Mobility Affects Multi-Cultural Skills and Educational Quality
We analyze the two goals behind the European Bologna Process of increasing student mobility: enabling graduates to develop multi cultural skills and increasing the quality of universities. We isolate three effects: 1) a competition effect that raises quality; 2) a free rider effect that lowers quality; 3) a composition effect that influences the relative strengths of the two previous effects. The effects lead to a trade off between the two goals. Full mobility may be optimal, only when externalities are high. In this case, student mobility yields inef- ficiently high educational quality. For moderate externalities partial mobility is optimal and yields an inefficiently low quality of education.
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