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Dynamics of Household Assets and Income Shocks in the Long-run Process of Economic Development: The Case of Rural Pakistan

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  • Kurosaki, Takashi

Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the dynamics of assets held by low-income households facing various types of income shocks in pre- and post-independence Pakistan. Focusing on the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province, NWFP), we first investigate the long-run data at the district level beginning from 1902. The results show that the population of livestock, the major asset of rural households, experienced a persistent decline after crop shocks due to droughts, but did not respond much to the Great Depression. In the post-independence period, crop agriculture continued to be vulnerable to natural disasters, although less substantially, while the response of livestock to such shocks was indiscernible from district-level data. To examine microeconomic mechanisms underlying such asset dynamics, we analyze a panel dataset collected from approximately 300 households in three villages in the NWFP during the late 1990s. The results show that the dynamics of household landholding and livestock is associated with a single long-run equilibrium. When human capital is included, the dynamics curve changes its shape but is not sufficiently nonlinear to produce statistically significant multiple equilibriums. The size of livestock holding was reduced in all villages hit by macroeconomic stagnation, while land depletion was reported only in a village with inferior access to markets. The patterns of asset dynamics ascertained from historical and contemporary analyses are consistent with limited but improving access to consumption smoothing measures in the study region over the century.

Suggested Citation

  • Kurosaki, Takashi, 2013. "Dynamics of Household Assets and Income Shocks in the Long-run Process of Economic Development: The Case of Rural Pakistan," PRIMCED Discussion Paper Series 39, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  • Handle: RePEc:hit:primdp:39 Note: Previous versions: April 15, 2013; March 17, 2013
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    File URL: http://hermes-ir.lib.hit-u.ac.jp/rs/bitstream/10086/25598/3/No39_dp.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Marcel Fafchamps, 2003. "Rural Poverty, Risk and Development," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 3127, April.
    2. Takashi Kurosaki, 2006. "Consumption vulnerability to risk in rural Pakistan," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(1), pages 70-89.
    3. Fujie, Takeshi & Senda, Tetsuji, 2011. "How do Farm Households Cope with Aggregate Shocks? Evidence from the Great Depression in Prewar Japan," Journal of Rural Economics, Agricultural Economics Society of Japan, vol. 83(1).
    4. Michelle Adato & Michael Carter & Julian May, 2006. "Exploring poverty traps and social exclusion in South Africa using qualitative and quantitative data," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(2), pages 226-247.
    5. Indranil Dutta & James Foster & Ajit Mishra, 2011. "On measuring vulnerability to poverty," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 37(4), pages 743-761, October.
    6. Takashi Kurosaki, 2003. "Specialization and Diversification in Agricultural Transformation: The Case of West Punjab, 1903–92," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(2), pages 372-386.
    7. Deaton, Angus, 1992. "Understanding Consumption," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288244.
    8. Tewodaj Mogues, 2011. "Shocks and Asset Dynamics in Ethiopia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(1), pages 91-120.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ngigi, Marther W. & Birner, Regina, 2013. "Shocks, livestock assets and climate change adaptation in Kenya," 2013 AAAE Fourth International Conference, September 22-25, 2013, Hammamet, Tunisia 161468, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
    2. Kurosaki, Takashi, 2017. "Household-Level Recovery after Floods in a Tribal and Conflict-Ridden Society," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 51-63.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    asset dynamics; natural disaster; buffer stock; poverty trap; Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • O44 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Environment and Growth
    • N55 - Economic History - - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment and Extractive Industries - - - Asia including Middle East

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