IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

An examination of the validity and reliability of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment Scale among Japanese family caregivers for older members

Listed author(s):
  • Ogura, Seiritsu
Registered author(s):

    Objectives: Recent studies suggest the need to adjust the construct of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment Scale among the family caregivers according to different social norms and differential public services. The aim of this study is to examine the reliability of the original five-subscale CRA and to evaluate the four-subscale CRA proposed by Malhotra, Chan, Malhotra, and Ostbye (2012) among the Japanese family caregivers of old people. Method: I conducted confirmatory factor analysis of the original Given’s Caregiver Reaction Assessment scale among Japanese family caregivers for older persons and found its fit to be less than satisfactory. I then conducted exploratory factor analysis and modified CRA scale for a better fit. Results: The second confirmatory factor analysis of a modified four-factor CRA model, similar to the one developed by Manhotra et al., (2012), showed an acceptable fit. Furthermore, I checked group invariance between the two important groups of family caregivers in Japan-married women caring for parents-in-law and women caring for own parents-and confirmed configural and metric invariance of the modified (18-item four-factor) scale. Conclusion: Thus I believe my 18-item four-factor CRA is a good empirical instrument for evaluating both positive and negative effects of informal caregiving in Japan, and possibly in some other countries in Asia.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University in its series CIS Discussion paper series with number 604.

    in new window

    Length: 30, [19] p.
    Date of creation: Jun 2013
    Handle: RePEc:hit:cisdps:604
    Contact details of provider: Postal:
    2-1 Naka, Kunitachi City, Tokyo 186-8603

    Phone: +81-42-580-8336
    Fax: +81-42-580-8333
    Web page:

    More information through EDIRC

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    in new window

    1. Masayuki O. Asai & Velma A. Kameoka, 2007. "Sekentei and Family Caregiving of Elders Among the Japanese: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Sekentei Scale," Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Gerontological Society of America, vol. 62(3), pages 179-183.
    2. Katharina Hauck & Nigel Rice, 2004. "A longitudinal analysis of mental health mobility in Britain," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(10), pages 981-1001.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hit:cisdps:604. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Digital Resources Section, Hitotsubashi University Library)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.