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Direct Evidence of Dividend Tax Clienteles

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    We study a large data set of stock portfolios held by individuals and organizations in the Swedish stock market. The dividend yields on these port-folios are systematically related to investors' relative tax preferences for dividends versus capital gains. Tax-neutral investors earn 40 basis points higher dividend yield on their portfolios than investors which face higher effective taxation of dividends than capital gains. We conclude that there are dividend tax clienteles in the market. We also argue that the abundant portfolio holdings by private corporations, despite triple taxation at a combined marginal tax rate as high as 77.5%, is a consequence of taxation.

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    Paper provided by Institute for Financial Research in its series SIFR Research Report Series with number 51.

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    Length: 34 pages
    Date of creation: 15 Mar 2007
    Handle: RePEc:hhs:sifrwp:0051
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    1. Michaely, Roni & Vila, Jean-Luc, 1996. "Trading Volume with Private Valuation: Evidence from the Ex-dividend Day," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 9(2), pages 471-509.
    2. Franklin Allen & Antonio Bernardo & Ivo Welch, "undated". "A Theory of Dividends Based on Tax Clienteles," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 15-98, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    3. John H. Boyd & Ravi Jagannathan, 1994. "Ex-dividend price behavior of common stocks," Staff Report 173, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
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    5. Miller, Merton H, 1977. "Debt and Taxes," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 261-275, May.
    6. Dhaliwal, Dan S. & Erickson, Merle & Trezevant, Robert, 1999. "A Test of the Theory of Tax Clienteles for Dividend Policies," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 52(2), pages 179-194, June.
    7. John R. Graham, 2003. "Taxes and Corporate Finance: A Review," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(4), pages 1075-1129.
    8. J. B. Chay & Dosoung Choi & Jeffrey Pontiff, 2006. "Market Valuation of Tax-Timing Options: Evidence from Capital Gains Distributions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(2), pages 837-865, 04.
    9. Eugene F. Fama & Kenneth R. French, "undated". "Disappearing Dividends: Changing Firm Characteristics or Lower Propensity to Pay?."," CRSP working papers 509, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
    10. Bell, Leonie & Jenkinson, Tim, 2001. "New Evidence of the Impact of Dividend Taxation and on the Identity of the Marginal Investor," CEPR Discussion Papers 2946, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    11. Pettit, R. Richardson, 1977. "Taxes, transactions costs and the clientele effect of dividends," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 419-436, December.
    12. Richard C. Green & Burton Hollifield, "undated". "The Personal-Tax Advantages of Equity," GSIA Working Papers 2000-E10, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
    13. Morck, Randall, 2006. "How to Eliminate Pyramidal Business Groups: The Double Taxation of Inter-corporate Dividends and other Incisive Uses of Tax Policy," CEI Working Paper Series 2005-15, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
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    16. repec:ntj:journl:v:52:y:1999:i:n._2:p:179-94 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Del Guercio, Diane, 1996. "The distorting effect of the prudent-man laws on institutional equity investments," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 31-62, January.
    18. Protopapadakis, Aris, 1983. "Some Indirect Evidence on Effective Capital Gains Tax Rates," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56(2), pages 127-138, April.
    19. Valery Polkovnichenko, 2005. "Household Portfolio Diversification: A Case for Rank-Dependent Preferences," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(4), pages 1467-1502.
    20. Scholz, John Karl, 1992. "A direct examination of the dividend clientele hypothesis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 261-285, December.
    21. Michaely, Roni & Thaler, Richard H & Womack, Kent L, 1995. " Price Reactions to Dividend Initiations and Omissions: Overreaction or Drift?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(2), pages 573-608, June.
    22. Miller, Merton H. & Scholes, Myron S., 1978. "Dividends and taxes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 333-364, December.
    23. Miller, Merton H & Scholes, Myron S, 1982. "Dividends and Taxes: Some Empirical Evidence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1118-1141, December.
    24. Yaniv Grinstein & Roni Michaely, 2005. "Institutional Holdings and Payout Policy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(3), pages 1389-1426, 06.
    25. Litzenberger, Robert H. & Ramaswamy, Krishna, 1979. "The effect of personal taxes and dividends on capital asset prices : Theory and empirical evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 163-195, June.
    26. Elton, Edwin J & Gruber, Martin J, 1970. "Marginal Stockholder Tax Rates and the Clientele Effect," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 52(1), pages 68-74, February.
    27. Merton H. Miller & Franco Modigliani, 1961. "Dividend Policy, Growth, and the Valuation of Shares," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34, pages 411-411.
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