IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cmu/gsiawp/358.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Personal-Tax Advantages of Equity

Author

Listed:
  • Richard C. Green
  • Burton Hollifield

Abstract

We compute the value of a firm that pays its cash flows each period through share repurchases in a dynamic environment where personal taxes are paid on realized capital gains and dividends. These results provide a measure of the personal tax advantages of equity financing relative to debt financing, which are often cited as increasing the cost of debt. The initial price of the firm depends on the present value of the taxes paid, which, in turn, depends on the initial price. We solve this valuation problem in closed form in a deterministic setting and numerically in a stochastic setting. We find significant valuation effects from the tax protection afforded by the equity basis. The tax savings are on the order of 40-50\% of the taxes paid by the shareholders of firm that distributes cash through dividends, and the cost of capital is reduced by approximately .8 to 1.2 percentage points through the use of repurchases relative to dividends.

Suggested Citation

  • Richard C. Green & Burton Hollifield, "undated". "The Personal-Tax Advantages of Equity," GSIA Working Papers 2000-E10, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
  • Handle: RePEc:cmu:gsiawp:358
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://chinook.tepper.cmu.edu/Ptax3.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. DeAngelo, Harry & Masulis, Ronald W., 1980. "Optimal capital structure under corporate and personal taxation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 3-29, March.
    2. Eugene F. Fama & Kenneth R. French, 1999. "The Corporate Cost of Capital and the Return on Corporate Investment," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(6), pages 1939-1967, December.
    3. John R. Graham, 2000. "How Big Are the Tax Benefits of Debt?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(5), pages 1901-1941, October.
    4. Jagannathan, Murali & Stephens, Clifford P. & Weisbach, Michael S., 2000. "Financial flexibility and the choice between dividends and stock repurchases," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(3), pages 355-384, September.
    5. Bagwell, Laurie Simon & Shoven, John B, 1989. "Cash Distributions to Shareholders," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(3), pages 129-140, Summer.
    6. Warner, Jerold B, 1977. "Bankruptcy Costs: Some Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 337-347, May.
    7. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    8. John R. Graham & Michael L. Lemmon & James S. Schallheim, 1998. "Debt, Leases, Taxes, and the Endogeneity of Corporate Tax Status," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(1), pages 131-162, February.
    9. Miller, Merton H, 1977. "Debt and Taxes," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 261-275, May.
    10. Parrino, Robert & Weisbach, Michael S., 1999. "Measuring investment distortions arising from stockholder-bondholder conflicts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 3-42, July.
    11. Hayne E. Leland., 1998. "Agency Costs, Risk Management, and Capital Structure," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-278, University of California at Berkeley.
    12. Brad M. Barber & Terrance Odean, 2000. "Trading Is Hazardous to Your Wealth: The Common Stock Investment Performance of Individual Investors," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 773-806, April.
    13. Talmor, Eli & Haugen, Robert & Barnea, Amir, 1985. "The Value of the Tax Subsidy on Risky Debt," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(2), pages 191-202, April.
    14. Chester Spatt & Robert Dammon & Harold Zhang, 1998. "Optimal Consumption and Investment with Capital Gains Taxes," GSIA Working Papers 1999-16, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
    15. Hayne E. Leland, 1998. "Agency Costs, Risk Management, and Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(4), pages 1213-1243, August.
    16. Balcer, Yves & Judd, Kenneth L, 1987. " Effects of Capital Gains Taxation on Life-Cycle Investment and Portfolio Management," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(3), pages 743-758, July.
    17. Graham, John R., 1996. "Debt and the marginal tax rate," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 41-73, May.
    18. Dammon, Robert M & Spatt, Chester S & Zhang, Harold H, 2001. "Optimal Consumption and Investment with Capital Gains Taxes," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(3), pages 583-616.
    19. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Norman Schuerhoff, 2004. "Capital Gains Taxes, Irreversible Investment, and Capital Structure," 2004 Meeting Papers 688, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    2. Harrington, Scott E. & Niehaus, Greg, 2003. "Capital, corporate income taxes, and catastrophe insurance," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 365-389, October.
    3. Miglo, Anton, 2010. "The Pecking Order, Trade-off, Signaling, and Market-Timing Theories of Capital Structure: a Review," MPRA Paper 46691, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2013.
    4. Rydqvist, Kristian & Spizman, Joshua & Strebulaev, Ilya, 2009. "The Evolution of Aggregate Stock Ownership - A Unified Explanation," SIFR Research Report Series 68, Institute for Financial Research.
    5. Rydqvist, Kristian & Spizman, Joshua & Strebulaev, Ilya, 2014. "Government policy and ownership of equity securities," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(1), pages 70-85.
    6. Kristian Rydqvist & Joshua Spizman & Ilya A. Strebulaev, 2011. "Government Policy and Ownership of Financial Assets," NBER Working Papers 17522, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Lipson, Marc L. & Mortal, Sandra, 2009. "Liquidity and capital structure," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 611-644, November.
    8. Miglo, Anton & Liang, Shuting & Lee, Zhenting, 2014. "Capital Structure of Internet Companies: Case Study," MPRA Paper 56330, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. repec:gam:jijfss:v:6:y:2018:i:1:p:10-:d:127097 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Graham, John R. & Tucker, Alan L., 2006. "Tax shelters and corporate debt policy," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(3), pages 563-594, September.
    11. Hanlon, Michelle & Heitzman, Shane, 2010. "A review of tax research," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2-3), pages 127-178, December.
    12. Clemens Sialm, 2009. "Tax Changes and Asset Pricing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(4), pages 1356-1383, September.
    13. Grinblatt, Mark & Liu, Jun, 2008. "Debt policy, corporate taxes, and discount rates," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, pages 225-254.
    14. William M. Getry & Deen Kemsley & Christopher J. Mayer, 2003. "Dividend Taxes and Share Prices: Evidence from Real Estate Investment Trusts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(1), pages 261-282, February.
    15. Hartzmark, Samuel M. & Solomon, David H., 2013. "The dividend month premium," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(3), pages 640-660.
    16. Buraschi, Andrea & Jiltsov, Alexei, 2005. "Inflation risk premia and the expectations hypothesis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(2), pages 429-490, February.
    17. Nippel, Peter, 2006. "Capital structure decisions under the German tax code," Manuskripte aus den Instituten für Betriebswirtschaftslehre der Universität Kiel 607, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Betriebswirtschaftslehre.
    18. JULES H. van BINSBERGEN & JOHN R. GRAHAM & JIE YANG, 2010. "The Cost of Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(6), pages 2089-2136, December.
    19. Oded, Jacob, 2011. "Stock repurchases: How firms choose between a self tender offer and an open-market program," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 3174-3187.
    20. Miglo, Anton, 2012. "Managers versus students: new approach in improving capital structure education," MPRA Paper 46695, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    21. Rydqvist, Kristian & Spizman, Joshua & Strebulaev, Ilya, 2011. "The evolution of aggregate stock ownership," CFS Working Paper Series 2011/18, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
    22. Dahlquist, Magnus & Robertsson, Göran & Rydqvist, Kristian, 2007. "Direct Evidence of Dividend Tax Clienteles," SIFR Research Report Series 51, Institute for Financial Research.
    23. Dahlquist, Magnus & Robertsson, Göran & Rydqvist, Kristian, 2006. "Direct Evidence of Dividend Tax Clienteles," CEPR Discussion Papers 6005, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    24. Gottesman, Aron A. & Jacoby, Gady, 2006. "Payout policy, taxes, and the relation between returns and the bid-ask spread," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 37-58, January.
    25. Lally, Martin, 2011. "Optimal dividend policy, debt policy and the level of investment within a multi-period DCF framework," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, pages 21-40.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cmu:gsiawp:358. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Steve Spear). General contact details of provider: http://www.tepper.cmu.edu/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.