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Costs of Climate Policy when Pollution Affects Health and Labour Productivity. A general Equilibrium Analysis Applied to Sweden

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Much of the debate over global climate change involves estimates of the direct costs of global climate change mitigation. Recently this debate has included the issue of ancillary benefits. These benefits consist mainly of health improvements. Although it is generally acknowledged that air pollution affects respiratory health, and that valuations of these impacts make up a significant proportion of the damage costs of air pollution, these impacts are often neglected when evaluating the costs of climate policy. Since reducing greenhouse gases has the effect of also reducing other pollutants affecting human health and labour productivity these effects should be taken into consideration. The analysis incorporates a linkage between air pollution and health effects into a general equilibrium model for Sweden through a theoretical consistent framework. Results from recent Swedish concentration-response and contingent valuation studies are used to model direct disutility and indirect health effects that negatively affects the productivity of labour. The costs of feedback effects on health and productivity are compared in three different scenarios for attaining the Swedish carbon dioxide target with alternative projected emission levels in the baseline scenario as well as alternative harmful emission levels. Results show that not including feedback effects could mean overstating the costs of climate policy. The magnitude of these effects are, however, very sensitive to projected emission levels and to the judgement of harmful emission levels.

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  • Östblom, Göran & Samakovlis, Eva, 2004. "Costs of Climate Policy when Pollution Affects Health and Labour Productivity. A general Equilibrium Analysis Applied to Sweden," Working Papers 93, National Institute of Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:nierwp:0093
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    1. Robert Ayres & Jörg Walter, 1991. "The greenhouse effect: Damages, costs and abatement," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 1(3), pages 237-270, September.
    2. Martin L. Weitzman, 1976. "On the Welfare Significance of National Product in a Dynamic Economy," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 90(1), pages 156-162.
    3. Williams, Roberton III, 2002. "Environmental Tax Interactions when Pollution Affects Health or Productivity," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 261-270, September.
    4. Ståle Navrud, 2001. "Valuing Health Impacts from Air Pollution in Europe," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 20(4), pages 305-329, December.
    5. Burtraw, Dallas & Krupnick, Alan & Palmer, Karen & Paul, Anthony & Toman, Michael & Bloyd, Cary, 2003. "Ancillary benefits of reduced air pollution in the US from moderate greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the electricity sector," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 650-673, May.
    6. Samakovlis, Eva & Huhtala, Anni & Bellander, Tom & Svartengren, Magnus, 2004. "Air Quality and Morbidity: Concentration-response Relationships for Sweden," Working Papers 87, National Institute of Economic Research.
    7. Nilsson, Charlotta & Huhtala, Anni, 2000. "Is CO2 Trading Always Beneficial? A CGE-Model Analysis on Secondary Environmental Benefits," Working Papers 75, National Institute of Economic Research.
    8. Bruvoll, Annegrete & Glomsrod, Solveig & Vennemo, Haakon, 1999. "Environmental drag: evidence from Norway," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 235-249, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Krook Riekkola, Anna & Ahlgren, Erik O. & Söderholm, Patrik, 2011. "Ancillary benefits of climate policy in a small open economy: The case of Sweden," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 4985-4998, September.
    2. Lott, Melissa C. & Pye, Steve & Dodds, Paul E., 2017. "Quantifying the co-impacts of energy sector decarbonisation on outdoor air pollution in the United Kingdom," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 42-51.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    air pollution; ancillary benefits; climate policy; general equilibrium; health;

    JEL classification:

    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • Q52 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Pollution Control Adoption and Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling

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