Demographic Patterns in Europe. A review of Austria, Germany, The Netherlands, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
Since the Second World War demographic behaviour has changed dramatically in the industrialised world. Marriage and fertility rates have declined substantially and total fertility rates have reached unprecedented low levels. All European countries (except Iceland and Turkey) now have fertility levels well below the replacement level. Divorce rates, non-marital cohabitation and extramarital fertility, on the other hand, have increased significantly, as has the age at first marriage and first birth. However, when and at which speed, these changes have occurred has varied greatly between different countries. The new pattern of development, genereally referred to as the "second demographic transition", appeared in Northern and Western Europe in the mid 1960s and then spread to the Southern countries, and more recently to the Eastern parts of Europe. In this overview I discuss the demographic development in Germany, the Netherlands, Austria, Estonia, Latvia , and Lithuania since the 1960s. The issues I focus on are: transition to adulthood (mainly the act of leaving parental home), partnership and fertility. I also present different explanations for the demographic changes. Some explanations deal with economic aspects such as the increased labour force participation and autonomy of women. Regarding the rapid demographic changes in the post-socialist states in Eastern Europe most explanations focus on the economic and social hardship following the collapse of the system. For Western Europe, cultural explanations such as values, secularisation and greater acceptance towards e.g. divorce and non-marital cohabitation, are used to a higher extent.
|Date of creation:||Jun 2003|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: 08-402 12 00
Fax: 08-24 50 14
Web page: http://www.framtidsstudier.se
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lindh, Thomas & Malmberg, Bo, 2002. "Swedish post-war economic development. The role of age structure in a welfare state," Arbetsrapport 2003:4, Institute for Futures Studies.
- Arnstein Aassve & Francesco C. Billari & Stefano Mazzuco & Fausta Ongaro, 2001. "Leaving Home Ain't Easy. A comparative longitudinal analysis of ECHP data," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2001-038, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- Oded Galor & Omer Moav, 2002.
"Natural Selection And The Origin Of Economic Growth,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 117(4), pages 1133-1191, November.
- Galor, Oded & Moav, Omer, 2000. "Natural Selection and the Origin of Economic Growth," Arbetsrapport 2000:5, Institute for Futures Studies.
- Oded Galor & Omer Moav, 2000. "Natural Selection and the Origin of economic Growth," Working Papers 2000-18, Brown University, Department of Economics.
- Galor, Oded & Moav, Omer, 2001. "Natural Selection and the Origin of Economic Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 2727, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Barnekow, Erik, 2002. "Demografi och finansmarknad - en översikt av empirisk forskning," Arbetsrapport 2002:7, Institute for Futures Studies.
- Francesco C. Billari & Dimiter Philipov & Pau Baizán Munoz, 2001. "Leaving home in Europe: the experience of cohorts born around 1960," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2001-014, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- Lundqvist, Torbjörn, 2002. "Arbetskraft och konkurrensbegränsning; aktörsperspektiv på den svenska modellen och framtiden," Arbetsrapport 2002:1, Institute for Futures Studies.
- Michael Lechner, 2005. "The Empirical Analysis of East German Fertility after," Labor and Demography 0505005, EconWPA.
- Sommestad, Lena, 2001. "Health and Wealth: The Contribution of Welfare State Policies to Economic Growth," Arbetsrapport 2001:3, Institute for Futures Studies.
- Mason, Karen Oppenheim & Jensen, An-Magritt (ed.), 1995. "Gender and Family Change in Industrialized Countries," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198289708, March.
- Lagerlöf, Nils-Petter, 2001. "From Malthus to Modern Growth: Can Epidemics Explain the Three Regimes?," Arbetsrapport 2001:1, Institute for Futures Studies.
- Dahlberg, Susanne & Nahum, Ruth-Aïda, 2003.
"Cohort Effects on Earnings Profiles: Evidence from Sweden,"
2003:3, Institute for Futures Studies.
- Dahlberg, Susanne & Nahum, Ruth-Aïda, 2003. "Cohort Effects on Earnings Profiles: Evidence from Sweden," Working Paper Series 2003:11, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
- Henriette Engelhardt & Heike Trappe & Jaap Dronkers, 2002. "Differences in family policy and the intergenerational transmission of divorce: a comparison between the former East and West Germany," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2002-008, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- Ranehill, Eva, 2002. "Social snedrekrytering till högre studier - En litteraturöversikt," Arbetsrapport 2002:10, Institute for Futures Studies.
- Henriette Engelhardt & Heike Trappe & Jaap Dronkers, 2002. "Differences in Family Policies and the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 6(11), pages 295-324, May.
- Malmberg, Bo & Sommestad, Lena, 2000. "Tunga trender i den globala utvecklingen," Arbetsrapport 2000:2, Institute for Futures Studies.
- Palme, Mårten & Svensson, Ingemar, 2002. "Pathways to Retirement and Retirement Incentives in Sweden," Arbetsrapport 2002:9, Institute for Futures Studies.
- Dimiter Philipov, 2002. "Fertility in times of discontinuous societal change: the case of Central and Eastern Europe," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2002-024, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:ifswps:2003_008. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sabina Nilsson)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.