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Taxation and systematic risk under decreasing returns to scale

Author

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  • Lund, Diderik

    (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School)

Abstract

Lund (2002a) showed in a CAPM-type model how tax depreciation schedules affect required expected returns after taxes. Even without leverage higher tax rates implied lower betas when tax deductions were risk free. Here they are risky, and marginal investment is taxed together with inframarginal in an analytical model of decreasing returns. With imperfect loss offset tax claims are analogous to call options. The beta of equity is still decreasing in the tax rate, but increasing in the underlying volatility. The results are important if market data are used to infer required expected returns, and in discussions of tax design.

Suggested Citation

  • Lund, Diderik, 2006. "Taxation and systematic risk under decreasing returns to scale," Working Papers 02-2003, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:cbsnow:2003_002
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    File URL: http://openarchive.cbs.dk/cbsweb/handle/10398/7643
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lund, Diderik, 2006. "Valuation, leverage and the cost of capital in the case of depreciable assets," Working Papers 03-2003, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Economics.
    2. Myers, Stewart C, 1974. "Interactions of Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions-Implications for Capital Budgeting," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(1), pages 1-25, March.
    3. Benninga, Simon & Sarig, Oded, 2003. "Risk, returns, and values in the presence of differential taxation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 1123-1138, June.
    4. Lund,D., 2001. "Taxation, uncertainty, and the cost of equity for a multinational firm," Memorandum 13/2001, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    5. Diderik Lund, 2002. "Petroleum Tax Reform Proposals in Norway and Denmark," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 37-56.
    6. Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R., 2001. "The theory and practice of corporate finance: evidence from the field," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 187-243, May.
    7. Gordon, Roger H & Wilson, John Douglas, 1989. "Measuring the Efficiency Cost of Taxing Risky Capital Income," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 427-439, June.
    8. Ray Ball & John Bowers, 1983. "Distortions Created by Taxes Which are Options on Value Creation: The Australian Resources Rent Tax Proposal," Australian Journal of Management, Australian School of Business, vol. 8(2), pages 1-14, December.
    9. Bulow, Jeremy I & Summers, Lawrence H, 1984. "The Taxation of Risky Assets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 92(1), pages 20-39, February.
    10. Levy, Haim & Arditti, Fred D, 1973. "Valuation, Leverage, and the Cost of Capital in the Case of Depreciable Assets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 28(3), pages 687-693, June.
    11. Shanker, Latha, 2000. "An innovative analysis of taxes and corporate hedging," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(3-4), pages 237-255, December.
    12. Lawrence H. Summers, 1987. "Investment Incentives and the Discounting of Depreciation Allowances," NBER Chapters,in: The Effects of Taxation on Capital Accumulation, pages 295-304 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. William F. Sharpe, 1964. "Capital Asset Prices: A Theory Of Market Equilibrium Under Conditions Of Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 19(3), pages 425-442, September.
    14. Gordon A. Sick, 1990. "Tax-Adjusted Discount Rates," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 36(12), pages 1432-1450, December.
    15. Miller, Merton H, 1977. "Debt and Taxes," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 261-275, May.
    16. Diderik Lund, 2002. "Taxation, Uncertainty, and the Cost of Equity," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 9(4), pages 483-503, August.
    17. McDonald, Robert & Siegel, Daniel, 1984. " Option Pricing When the Underlying Asset Earns a Below-Equilibrium Rate of Return: A Note," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(1), pages 261-265, March.
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    19. Hall, Robert E & Jorgenson, Dale W, 1969. "Tax Policy and Investment Behavior: Reply and Further Results," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(3), pages 388-401, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Lund, Diderik, 2006. "Valuation, leverage and the cost of capital in the case of depreciable assets," Working Papers 03-2003, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Economics.
    2. Lund, Diderik, 2009. "Marginal versus Average Beta of Equity under Corporate Taxation," Memorandum 12/2009, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    3. Lund, Diderik, 2005. "An analytical model of required returns to equity under taxation with imperfect loss offset," Memorandum 13/2005, Oslo University, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Corporate tax; depreciation; imperfect loss offset; decreasing returns; cost of capital; uncertainty;

    JEL classification:

    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • G31 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies
    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies

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