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La réforme de la politique scientifique française face à la mondialisation : l'émergence incertaine d'un nouveau référentiel d'action publique

Author

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  • Anne Branciard

    (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Eric Verdier

Abstract

L'enjeu principal de cette contribution tient dans sa tentative de rendre compte du travail de médiation qui articule des répertoires d'interprétation du monde la recherche et de la technologie à la formulation des politiques publiques et, en particulier, des réformes récentes. Autrement dit, il s'agit d'analyser le passage d'une posture analytique à des préconisations normatives. Dans cette perspective, les rapports d'experts tiennent une place cruciale. Les politiques scientifiques et les réformes qu'elles ont connues en France constituent un domaine d'élection pour une "approche cognitive" de l'action publique. En effet, ainsi que ce texte s'attachera à le montrer, l'analyse de ces réformes et, en arrière-plan, de la trajectoire du dispositif français de recherche et de technologie, est inséparable de l'appropriation des analyses produites par la sociologie et l'économie de l'innovation et des connaissances. Elles sont médiatisées par des rapports d'expertise commandités par les pouvoirs publics nationaux et/ou élaborées par les organisations internationales, au premier rang d'entre elles, l'OCDE. Comme dans d'autres domaines de l'action publique, l'élaboration des récentes réformes est souvent assimilée à une promotion des régulations marchandes. Certes, c'est bien la construction des années 50-70, qualifiée de ‘colbertiste' ou de ‘régulation administrée', qui est ainsi en jeu ; mais on peut avancer qu'une conception connexionniste de la science et de la technologie, mariant les réseaux et l'interaction tournées vers l'élaboration de projets, tend à prédominer. Dans les faits, c'est une pluralité de compromis et d'agencements entre différents principes de justification qui semble prévaloir. Il en résulte une forte indétermination des trajectoires sociétales.

Suggested Citation

  • Anne Branciard & Eric Verdier, 2003. "La réforme de la politique scientifique française face à la mondialisation : l'émergence incertaine d'un nouveau référentiel d'action publique," Post-Print halshs-00153797, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00153797
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00153797
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Etzkowitz, Henry & Leydesdorff, Loet, 2000. "The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and "Mode 2" to a Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 109-123, February.
    2. Casper, Steven, 1999. "National institutional frameworks and high-technology innovation in Germany: the case of biotechnology," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Economic Change and Employment FS I 99-306, WZB Berlin Social Science Center.
    3. Caroline Lanciano-Morandat & Hiroatsu Nohara & Eric Verdier, 2006. "Higher Education Systems and Industrial Innovation," Post-Print halshs-00391812, HAL.
    4. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00391812_v1 is not listed on IDEAS
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    1. Caroline Lanciano-Morandat & Eric Verdier, 2010. "Multi-level Perspectives: A Comparative Analysis of National R&D Policies," Chapters, in: Riccardo Viale & Henry Etzkowitz (ed.), The Capitalization of Knowledge, chapter 8, Edward Elgar Publishing.

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