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Decision under psychological pressure: The shooter's anxiety at the penalty kick

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  • Luc Arrondel

    (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)

  • Richard Duhautois
  • Jean-François Laslier

Abstract

The paper analyses sequences of penalty kicks during football shoot-outs in French cup competitions. We consider in detail the psychological effects to which the kicker is subject: the fear of winning, the fear of losing, the expected outcomes and how much is at stake. Our main conclusion is that the performance (the probability of scoring) is negatively affected by both what is at stake (the impact of my scoring on the expected probability that my team will eventually win) and the difficulty of the situation (the ex ante probability of my team eventually losing). We find no advantage for the team that takes the first kick.
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Suggested Citation

  • Luc Arrondel & Richard Duhautois & Jean-François Laslier, 2019. "Decision under psychological pressure: The shooter's anxiety at the penalty kick," Post-Print hal-03044360, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03044360
    DOI: 10.1016/j.joep.2018.10.008
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03044360
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    2. Bar-Eli, Michael & Krumer, Alex & Morgulev, Elia, 2020. "Ask not what economics can do for sports - Ask what sports can do for economics," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 89(C).
    3. Lackner, Mario & Sonnabend, Hendrik, 2021. "Coping with advantageous inequity—Field evidence from professional penalty kicking," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 91(C).
    4. L'aszl'o Csat'o & D'ora Gr'eta Petr'oczy, 2020. "Fairness in penalty shootouts: Is it worth using dynamic sequences?," Papers 2004.09225, arXiv.org, revised Jan 2022.
    5. Viktor Bozhinov & Nora Grote, 2019. "Performance under Pressure on the Court: Evidence from Professional Volleyball," Working Papers 1901, Gutenberg School of Management and Economics, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz.
    6. László Csató, 2021. "A comparison of penalty shootout designs in soccer," 4OR, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 183-198, June.
    7. Krumer, Alex, 2020. "Pressure versus ability: Evidence from penalty shoot-outs between teams from different divisions," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 89(C).

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