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A League of Their Own - Female Soccer, Male Legacy and Women's Empowerment


  • Seo-Young Cho

    () (DIW, Berlin / Germany)


This paper investigates whether male soccer tradition can predict the success of female soccer. Different from the existing literature, this paper utilizes panel data covering 175 countries during the 1991-2011 period, capturing country heterogeneity effects and time trends. An instrumental variable approach is further employed in order to identify causal relation. My findings do not support the widespread perception that male tradition determines female soccer attainments. On the other hand, my results indicate that women’s empowerment can be a driving force for the success of female soccer.

Suggested Citation

  • Seo-Young Cho, 2013. "A League of Their Own - Female Soccer, Male Legacy and Women's Empowerment," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 223, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:got:iaidps:223

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Michael A. Leeds & Eva Marikova Leeds, 2009. "International Soccer Success and National Institutions," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 10(4), pages 369-390, August.
    2. Robert Hoffmann & Lee Chew Ging & Victor Matheson & Bala Ramasamy, 2006. "International women's football and gender inequality," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(15), pages 999-1001.
    3. Joshua Congdon-Hohman & Victor A. Matheson, 2013. "International women’s soccer and gender inequality: revisited," Chapters,in: Handbook on the Economics of Women in Sports, chapter 16, pages 345-364 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Benno Torgler, 2004. "The Determinants of Women?s International Soccer Performances," CREMA Working Paper Series 2004-19, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
    5. Andrew B. Bernard & Meghan R. Busse, 2004. "Who Wins the Olympic Games: Economic Resources and Medal Totals," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 413-417, February.
    6. Robert Hoffmann & Lee Chew Ging & Bala Ramasamy, 2002. "The Socio-Economic Determinants of International Soccer Performance," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 5, pages 253-272, November.
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    More about this item


    female and male soccer; women’s empowerment; panel analysis;

    JEL classification:

    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • Z10 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - General

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