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Foreign Aid, Exports and Development in Euromed



This paper investigates the link between foreign aid and exports between the two shores of the Mediterranean. The main hypothesis is that the Euro-Mediterranean Process should promote not only trade but also stronger links between the European Union (EU) and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Hence, we expect development aid to have a positive impact on exports, which could also intensify the aid-trade relationship. In particular, we expect to find higher trade volumes in both directions after the process started in 1995 and intensified in the late 1990s and early 2000s, when several bilateral free trade agreements were signed. A gravity model augmented with bilateral and multilateral aid and trade regime variables is estimated for exports and imports from recipient countries to donor countries for the period 1988 to 2007 using advanced panel data techniques. Our method addresses the endogeneity bias of the trade regime/economic integration agreement (EIA) variable, assuming that decisions to form or enlarge EIAs are slow-moving relative to trade flows.

Suggested Citation

  • Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso & Felicitas Nowak-Lehmann D. & Florian Johannsen, 2012. "Foreign Aid, Exports and Development in Euromed," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 218, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:got:iaidps:218

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hristos Doucouliagos & Martin Paldam, 2005. "Aid Effectiveness on Growth. A Meta Study," Economics Working Papers 2005-13, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    2. Hristos Doucouliagos & Martin Paldam, 2006. "Aid Effectiveness on Accumulation: A Meta Study," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(2), pages 227-254, May.
    3. Rajan, Raghuram G. & Subramanian, Arvind, 2011. "Aid, Dutch disease, and manufacturing growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 106-118, January.
    4. John C. Driscoll & Aart C. Kraay, 1998. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation With Spatially Dependent Panel Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 549-560, November.
    5. Felicitas Nowak-Lehmann & Axel Dreher & Dierk Herzer & Stephan Klasen & Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso, 2012. "Does foreign aid really raise per capita income? A time series perspective," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(1), pages 288-313, February.
    6. Kemp, Murray C. & Wong, Kar-yiu, 1993. "Paradoxes associated with the administration of foreign aid," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 197-204, October.
    7. Cecília Hornok, 2010. "Trade-Enhancing EU Enlargement and the Resurgence of East-East Trade," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 3, pages 79-94.
    8. Jan Pettersson & Lars Johansson, 2013. "Aid, Aid for Trade, and bilateral trade: An empirical study," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(6), pages 866-894, September.
    9. Joong Shik Kang & Alessandro Prati & Alessandro Rebucci, 2012. "Aid, Exports, and Growth: a Time-Series Perspective on the Dutch Disease Hypothesis," Review of Economics and Institutions, Università di Perugia, vol. 3(2).
    10. Persson, Maria & Wilhelmsson, Fredrik, 2006. "Assessing the Effects of EU Trade Preferences for Developing Countries," Working Papers 2006:4, Lund University, Department of Economics, revised 26 Jun 2006.
    11. José Vicente Blanes Cristóbal & Juliette Milgram Baleix, 2010. "Impacto de la liberalización comercial de Marruecos sobre las exportaciones por regiones," Revista de Economia Aplicada, Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Estructura Economica y Economia Publica, vol. 18(1), pages 63-90, Spring.
    12. Arvind Subramanian & Raghuram Rajan, 2005. "What Undermines Aid’s Impact on Growth?," IMF Working Papers 05/126, International Monetary Fund.
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    More about this item


    International Trade; Foreign Aid; Euro-mediterranean Process;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F35 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Aid

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