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Animal spirits, margin requirements, and stock price volatility


  • Paul H. Kupiec
  • Steven A. Sharpe


A simple overlapping generations model is used to characterize the effects of initial margin requirements in the volatility of risky asset prices. Investors are assumed to exhibit heterogenous preferences for risk-bearing, the distribution of which evolves stochastically across generations. This framework is used to show that imposing a binding initial marginal requirement may either increase or decrease stock price volatility, depending upon the microeconomic structure behind fluctuations in economywide average risk-bearing propensity. The ambiguous effect on volatility similarly arises when the source of heterogeneity is noise trader beliefs. Copyright 1991 by American Finance Association.
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Suggested Citation

  • Paul H. Kupiec & Steven A. Sharpe, 1989. "Animal spirits, margin requirements, and stock price volatility," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 91, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:91

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Reuven Glick and Steven E. Plaut., 1988. "Money and Off-Balance-Sheet Liquidity: An Empirical Analysis," Research Program in Finance Working Papers 182, University of California at Berkeley.
    2. Boot, Arnoud & Thakor, Anjan V. & Udell, Gregory F., 1987. "Competition, risk neutrality and loan commitments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 449-471, September.
    3. James, Christopher, 1982. " An Analysis of Bank Loan Rate Indexation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 37(3), pages 809-825, June.
    4. Boot, Arnoud W. A. & Thakor, Anjan V. & Udell, Gregory F., 1991. "Credible commitments, contract enforcement problems and banks: Intermediation as credibility assurance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 605-632, June.
    5. Melnik, Arie & Plaut, Steven E., 1986. "The economics of loan commitment contracts: Credit pricing and utilization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 267-280, June.
    6. Avery, Robert B. & Berger, Allen N., 1991. "Loan commitments and bank risk exposure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 173-192, February.
    7. Sofianos, George & Wachtel, Paul & Melnik, Arie, 1990. "Loan commitments and monetary policy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 677-689, October.
    8. Ham, John C & Melnik, Arie, 1987. "Loan Demand: An Empirical Analysis Using Micro Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(4), pages 704-709, November.
    9. Thakor, Anjan V. & Udell, Gregory F., 1987. "An economic rationale for the pricing structure of bank loan commitments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 271-289, June.
    10. Gary D. Koppenhaver, 1987. "The effects of regulation on bank participation in the guarantee market," Staff Memoranda 87-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ilhyock Shim & Goetz von Peter, 2007. "Distress selling and asset market feedback," BIS Working Papers 229, Bank for International Settlements.
    2. Paul Kupiec, 1998. "Margin Requirements, Volatility, and Market Integrity: What Have We Learned Since the Crash?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 13(3), pages 231-255, June.
    3. Lillyn L. Teh & Werner F. M. de Bondt, 1997. "Herding Behavior and Stock Returns: An Exploratory Investigation," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 133(II), pages 293-324, June.
    4. Wen-Chung Guo & Frank Wang & Ho-Mou Wu, 2011. "Financial leverage and market volatility with diverse beliefs," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 47(2), pages 337-364, June.
    5. Middleton, Elliott, 1996. "Adaptation level and 'animal spirits'," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 479-498, August.
    6. Chen, Chao & Jeng, Jau-Lian, 1996. "The impact of price limits on foreign currency futures' price volatility and market efficiency," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 13-25.
    7. Brumm, Johannes & Grill, Michael & Kubler, Felix & Schmedders, Karl, 2015. "Margin regulation and volatility," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 54-68.
    8. Hsin, Chin-Wen & Guo, Wen-Chung & Tseng, Seng-Su & Luo, Wen-Chih, 2003. "The impact of speculative trading on stock return volatility: the evidence from Taiwan," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 243-270, December.
    9. Sheng Guo, 2014. "Margin Requirements and Portfolio Optimization: A Geometric Approach," Working Papers 1406, Florida International University, Department of Economics.
    10. Filiz Eryilmaz, 2015. "Modelling Stock Market Volatility: The Case Of Bist-100," Annals - Economy Series, Constantin Brancusi University, Faculty of Economics, vol. 5, pages 37-47, October.
    11. Alan Guoming Huang & Eric Hughson & J. Chris Leach, 2016. "Generational Asset Pricing, Equity Puzzles, and Cyclicality," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 22, pages 52-71, October.
    12. Albert Menkveld & Emiliano Pagnotta & Marius Andrei Zoican, 2016. "Does Central Clearing Affect Price Stability? Evidence from Nordic Equity Markets," Working Papers hal-01253702, HAL.
    13. William Schwert, G., 2002. "Stock volatility in the new millennium: how wacky is Nasdaq?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 3-26, January.
    14. Peter Fortune, 2001. "Margin lending and stock market volatility," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, pages 3-25.


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