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Federal Home Loan Bank advances and commercial bank portfolio composition

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Abstract

The primary mission of the 12 cooperatively owned Federal Home Loan Banks (FHLBs) is to provide their members financial products and services to assist and enhance member housing finance. In this paper, we consider the role of the FHLBs' traditional product--\"advances,\" or collateralized loans to members--in stabilizing commercial bank members' residential mortgage lending activities. ; Our theoretical model shows that using membership criteria (such as a minimum of 10 percent of the portfolio being in mortgage-related assets) or using mortgage-related assets as collateral does not ensure that FHLB advances will be put to use for stabilizing members' financing of housing. Indeed, our model demonstrates that advances--a relatively low cost managed liability--are most likely to influence lending only when such liabilities are used to finance \"relationship\" loans (i.e., loans to bank-dependent borrowers) that will be held on a bank's balance sheet and are least likely to influence lending for loans where the loan rate is heavily influenced by securitization activities, like mortgages. ; Using panel vector autoregression (VAR) techniques, we estimate recent dynamic responses of U.S. bank portfolios to FHLB advance shocks, to bank lending shocks, and to macroeconomic shocks. Our empirical findings are consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model. First, recent bank portfolio responses to FHLB advance shocks are of similar magnitude for mortgages, for commercial and industrial loans, and for other real estate loans. This suggests that advances are just as likely to fund other types of bank credit as to fund single-family mortgages. Second, unexpected changes in all types of bank lending are accommodated using FHLB advances. Third, FHLB advances do not appear to reduce variability in bank residential mortgage lending resulting from macroeconomic shocks. However, some banks appear to have used FHLB advances to reduce variability in commercial and industrial lending in response to such macroeconomic shocks. Thus, relatively low cost managed liabilities may be used to finance \"relationship\" borrowers (which are typically business borrowers, rather than residential mortgage borrowers), although this use for advances appears to have diminished over time.

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  • W. Scott Frame & Diana Hancock & Wayne Passmore, 2007. "Federal Home Loan Bank advances and commercial bank portfolio composition," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2007-31, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2007-31
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    Cited by:

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    3. Philippas, Dionisis & Papadamou, Stephanos & Tomuleasa, Iuliana, 2019. "The role of leverage in quantitative easing decisions: Evidence from the UK," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 308-324.
    4. Valentina Salotti & Natalya A. Schenck & John H. Thornton Jr., 2016. "The Impact Of Real Estate Lending On Thrifts' Franchise Values During The 2007–2009 Crisis: A Comparison With Commercial Banks," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 39(1), pages 35-62, March.
    5. Lawrence J. White & W. Scott Frame, 2009. "The Federal Home Loan Bank System: Current Issues in Perspective," Working Papers 09-18, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
    6. W. Scott Frame, 2016. "The federal home loan bank system and U.S. housing finance," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2016-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    7. Fishback, Price & Fleitas, Sebastian & Rose, Jonathan & Snowden, Ken, 2020. "Collateral Damage: The Impact of Foreclosures on New Home Mortgage Lending in the 1930s," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 80(3), pages 853-885, September.
    8. Jin, Justin Yiqiang & Kanagaretnam, Kiridaran & Liu, Yi, 2018. "Banks' funding structure and earnings quality," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 163-178.
    9. Christos Kollias & Stephanos Papadamou, 2019. "Peace And Tourism: A Nexus? Evidence From Developed And Developing Countries," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 64(02), pages 323-339, March.

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