Smart systems and simple agents: industry pricing by parallel rules
A standard macroeconomic specification is that the aggregate economy is directed by a single, smart representative agent using optimal decision rules. This paper explores an alternative conjecture--that the dynamic behavior of markets is often better interpreted as the interactions of many heterogeneous, rule-of-thumb agents who are loosely coupled in smart systems--much like the contrast of a single serial processor with global information versus parallel processors with limited communications. The illustration used in this paper is the contrast between a conventional macro model of sluggish adjustments in an aggregate producer price index and a model of delayed industry price adjustments in a distributed production system under costly inter-firm communications.
|Date of creation:||1996|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 20th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20551|
Web page: http://www.federalreserve.gov/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/fedsorder.html|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Fisher, P. G. & Holly, S. & Hughes Hallett, A. J., 1986. "Efficient solution techniques for dynamic non-linear rational expectations models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 139-145, June.
- Edward J Green & Robert H Porter, 1997.
"Noncooperative Collusion Under Imperfect Price Information,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
1147, David K. Levine.
- Green, Edward J & Porter, Robert H, 1984. "Noncooperative Collusion under Imperfect Price Information," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(1), pages 87-100, January.
- Green, Edward J. & Porter, Robert H., 1982. "Noncooperative Collusion Under Imperfect Price Information," Working Papers 367, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Ball, L. & Mankiw, N.G., 1992.
"Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Economic Fluctuations,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1602, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Ball, Laurence & Mankiw, N Gregory, 1994. "Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Economic Fluctuations," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(423), pages 247-261, March.
- Laurence Ball & N. Gregory Mankiw, 1992. "Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Economic Fluctuations," NBER Working Papers 4089, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rotemberg, Julio J & Saloner, Garth, 1986. "A Supergame-Theoretic Model of Price Wars during Booms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(3), pages 390-407, June.
- Tobin, James, 1972. "Inflation and Unemployment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(1), pages 1-18, March.
- Rotemberg, Julio J, 1982. "Sticky Prices in the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1187-1211, December.
- Andrew S. Caplin & Daniel F. Spulber, 1987.
"Menu Costs and the Neutrality of Money,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 102(4), pages 703-725.
- Perry, Martin K., 1989. "Vertical integration: Determinants and effects," Handbook of Industrial Organization, in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 4, pages 183-255 Elsevier.
- Schmalensee, Richard., 1987.
"Inter-industry studies of structure and performance,"
1874-87., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Schmalensee, Richard, 1989. "Inter-industry studies of structure and performance," Handbook of Industrial Organization, in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 16, pages 951-1009 Elsevier.
- Oliver Jean Blanchard, 1987. "Aggregate and Individual Price Adjustment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(1), pages 57-122.
- Thomas J. Sargent, 1981.
"The ends of four big inflations,"
158, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Dennis W. Carlton, 1986.
"The Rigidity of Prices,"
NBER Working Papers
1813, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Qualls, P David, 1979. "Market Structure and the Cyclical Flexibility of Price-Cost Margins," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(2), pages 305-325, April.
- Robert J. Gordon, 1981.
"Output Fluctuations and Gradual Price Adjustment,"
NBER Working Papers
0621, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- J. A. Kregel, 1980. "Introduction," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 3(1), pages 19-20, October.
- Gode, Dhananjay K & Sunder, Shyam, 1993. "Allocative Efficiency of Markets with Zero-Intelligence Traders: Market as a Partial Substitute for Individual Rationality," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(1), pages 119-137, February.
- Vakhutinsky, I Y & Dudkin, L M & Ryvkin, A A, 1979. "Iterative Aggregation-A New Approach to the Solution of Large-Scale Problems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(4), pages 821-841, July.
- Roger Gordon, 2006. "Editor, Journal of Economic Literature," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 510-511, May.
- Daniel Tsiddon, 1993. "The (Mis)Behaviour of the Aggregate Price Level," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(4), pages 889-902.
- Peter A. Tinsley, 1993. "Fitting both data and theories: polynomial adjustment costs and error- correction decision rules," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 93-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Waterson, Michael, 1982. "Vertical Integration, Variable Proportions and Oligopoly," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(365), pages 129-144, March.
- Blinder, Alan S, 1991.
"Why Are Prices Sticky? Preliminary Results from an Interview Study,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 81(2), pages 89-96, May.
- Alan S. Blinder, 1991. "Why are Prices Sticky? Preliminary Results from an Interview Study," NBER Working Papers 3646, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Domowitz, Ian & Hubbard, R Glenn & Petersen, Bruce C, 1987. "Oligopoly Supergames: Some Empirical Evidence on Prices and Margins," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 379-398, June.
- Gordon, Robert J, 1990. "What Is New-Keynesian Economics?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 28(3), pages 1115-1171, September.
- Eckard, E Woodrow, Jr, 1982. "Firm Market Share, Price Flexibility, and Imperfect Information," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 20(3), pages 388-392, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:1996-50. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Franz Osorio)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.