Has monetary policy become less effective?
High-powered money has been declining relative to nominal GDP in the United States. Does the ability of monetary policy to affect aggregate activity decline as the money-income ratio falls? In this paper, I specify simple model economy, examining the effects that monetary policy actions and financial innovation would have on the equilibrium money-income ratio. The downward trend in the money-income ratio can be accounted for by increasing inflation, falling reserve requirements, or steady financial development. Whereas higher inflation and falling reserve requirements would reduce the potency of monetary policy, monetary policy's effects are invariant to financial innovation.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Stockman, Alan C., 1981. "Anticipated inflation and the capital stock in a cash in-advance economy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 387-393.
- Gertler, Mark, 1988.
"Financial Structure and Aggregate Economic Activity: An Overview,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 20(3), pages 559-588, August.
- Mark Gertler, 1988. "Financial structure and aggregate economic activity: an overview," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 559-596.
- Mark L. Gertler, 1988. "Financial Structure and Aggregate Economic Activity: An Overview," NBER Working Papers 2559, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ireland, Peter N, 1995.
"Endogenous Financial Innovation and the Demand for Money,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(1), pages 107-123, February.
- Peter N. Ireland, 1992. "Endogenous financial innovation and the demand for money," Working Paper 92-03, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
- Harold L. Cole & Lee E. Ohanian, 1998. "The demand for money and the nonneutrality of money," Staff Report 246, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Woodford, Michael, 1990. "The optimum quantity of money," Handbook of Monetary Economics, in: B. M. Friedman & F. H. Hahn (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 20, pages 1067-1152 Elsevier.
- McGrattan, Ellen R., 1998. "Trends in velocity and policy expectations : A comment," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 305-316, December.
- Joseph H. Haslag & Eric R. Young, 1998.
"Revenue-maximizing monetary policy,"
9801, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
- Joseph H. Haslag & Eric R. Young, 1998. "Money Creation, Reserve Requirements, and Seigniorage," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 1(3), pages 677-698, July.
- Brunner, Karl & Meltzer, Allan H, 1972. "Money, Debt, and Economic Activity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(5), pages 951-977, Sept.-Oct.
- Bansal, Ravi & Coleman, Wilbur John, II, 1996. "A Monetary Explanation of the Equity Premium, Term Premium, and Risk-Free Rate Puzzles," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(6), pages 1135-1171, December.
- Lacker, Jeffrey M. & Schreft, Stacey L., 1996. "Money and credit as means of payment," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 3-23, August.
- Gordon, David B. & Leeper, Eric M. & Zha, Tao, 1998.
"Trends in velocity and policy expectations,"
Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy,
Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 265-304, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:feddwp:99-06. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Amy Chapman)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.