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The effect of demographics on payment behavior: panel data with sample selection

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  • Stavins, Joanna

    () (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston)

Abstract

Connolly and Stavins (2015) showed that payment behavior is strongly correlated with consumers’ demographic and income attributes over the 2009–2013 period. In this paper, we apply a random effects panel data model with sample selection based on Wooldridge (1995) to estimate the effect of each attribute on payment-instrument adoption and use. We find that age, education, income, and race are significant in explaining payment behavior even after controlling for all the other attributes of consumers and for payment-instrument characteristics. Most notably, the lowest-income, lowest-education, and minority consumers adopt a very limited set of payment instruments compared with their counterparts even when education and age are controlled for. These consumers also have a significantly different pattern of payment use conditional on adoption; they rely significantly more on cash and less on credit cards for their transactions. The data do not allow us to isolate supply-side and demand-side factors to explain the causes of these discrepancies. Women use significantly less cash than men, but use more debit cards, checks, and online banking bill pay, even when we control for the degree of bill-paying responsibility they have for their households. Single people use more cash, while married people use more checks. Although characteristics of payment instruments, such as cost, convenience, and security, significantly affect payment behavior, consumers’ socio-demographic attributes explain most of the variation. Separating the effects of consumers’ age from the effects of birth cohorts indicates that in most cases age and birth-cohort trends move together.

Suggested Citation

  • Stavins, Joanna, 2016. "The effect of demographics on payment behavior: panel data with sample selection," Working Papers 16-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedbwp:16-5
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Sergei Koulayev & Marc Rysman & Scott Schuh & Joanna Stavins, 2016. "Explaining adoption and use of payment instruments by US consumers," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 47(2), pages 293-325, May.
    2. Kevin Foster & Erik Meijer & Scott Schuh & Michael A. Zabek, 2010. "The 2008 Survey of Consumer Payment Choice," Public Policy Discussion Paper 09-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    3. Wooldridge, Jeffrey M., 1995. "Selection corrections for panel data models under conditional mean independence assumptions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 115-132, July.
    4. Kevin Foster & Erik Meijer & Scott Schuh & Michael A. Zabek, 2011. "The 2009 survey of consumer payment choice," Public Policy Discussion Paper 11-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    5. Connolly, Sean & Stavins, Joanna, 2015. "Payment instrument adoption and use in the United States, 2009–2013, by consumers' demographic characteristics," Research Data Report 15-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    6. Schuh, Scott & Stavins, Joanna, 2010. "Why are (some) consumers (finally) writing fewer checks? The role of payment characteristics," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1745-1758, August.
    7. Angrisani, Marco & Foster, Kevin & Hitczenko, Marcin, 2014. "The 2011 and 2012 Surveys of Consumer Payment Choice: technical appendix," Research Data Report 14-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
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    Cited by:

    1. Carin van der Cruijsen & Joris Knoben, 2018. "Ctrl+C Ctrl+pay: Do people mirror payment behaviour of their peers?," DNB Working Papers 611, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    2. repec:bfr:bullbf:2018:220:02 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Eleonora Patacchini & Edoardo Rainone, 2017. "Social ties and the demand for financial services," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1115, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    4. Emmanuelle Politronacci & Adeline Moret & David Bounie & Abel François, 2018. "L’usage des espèces en France : priorité aux transactions de faible valeur," Bulletin de la Banque de France, Banque de France, issue 220, pages 1-9.
    5. repec:kap:jfsres:v:52:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s10693-017-0279-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:bfr:quarte:2018:220:02 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • D14 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Saving; Personal Finance
    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money

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