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L’effet pro-concurrentiel de l’intégration européenne : une analyse de l’évolution des taux de marge dans les industries manufacturières françaises

  • Flora Bellone

    (Université de Nice)

  • Patrick Musso

    (CNRS)

  • Lionel Nesta

    (Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Économiques)

  • Frédéric Warzynski

    (Aarhus School of Business)

Dans cet article, nous testons l’hypothèse selon laquelle plusieurs chocs structurels, macroéconomiques et sectoriels, auraient joué globalement dans le sens d’un accroissement de la pression concurrentielle s’exerçant sur les entreprises françaises des secteurs manufacturiers, entre 1986 et 2004. Aux chocs structurels de la mise en place du marché unique au premier janvier 1993 et de la mise en circulation de la monnaie unique s’ajoutent des chocs industriels spécifiques faisant suite à l’émergence de la Chine et de l’Inde sur la scène internationale. De manière plus générale, le processus de mondialisation s’est accentué tout au long de la période marquée par une hausse tendancielle des intensités d’importation et d’exportation dans l’ensemble des industries françaises. Nous observons que le taux de marge moyen, sur l’ensemble de la période et sur l’ensemble des industries, est de 13,8%, ce qui est légèrement supérieur au Royaume-Uni. Nous trouvons que la mise en place du marché commun a conduit à une diminution de 4 à 5% des marges, alors que l’entrée en vigueur de l’Euro a constitué une opportunité pour les entreprises des secteurs de l’habillement et de l’automobile d’augmenter leurs marges d’environ 2%. Les taux de marge français sont contracycliques, et sont significativement déterminés par la configuration industrielle en termes d’ouverture au commerce international, de concentration industrielle et d’intensités capitalistique et technologique. Enfin, ces faits stylisés cachent une diversité sectorielle importante, qui révèle des pratiques de détermination des prix éminemment spécifiques aux secteurs.

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Paper provided by Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE) in its series Documents de Travail de l'OFCE with number 2008-09.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:fce:doctra:0809
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