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What Determines Utility of International Currencies?

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  • OGAWA Eiji
  • MUTO Makoto

Abstract

Ogawa and Muto (2017a, 2017b) estimated a time series of coefficients on five international currencies (the US dollar, the euro, the Japanese yen, the British pound, and the Swiss franc) in a utility function. We call the coefficients utilities of international currencies. The time series show that the utility of the U.S. dollar as an international currency has remained in the first position in the changing international monetary system despite of the fact that the euro was created as a single common currency for European countries. On one hand, the utility of the Japanese yen has been declining as an international currency. In this paper, we investigate what determines the utility of international currencies. We use a dynamic panel data model to analyze the issue with GMM. Specifically, liquidity shortage in terms of an international currency means that it is inconvenient for economic agents to use the relevant currency for international economic transactions. In other words, liquidity shortages might reduce the utility of an international currency. In this analysis we focus on liquidity premium which represents a liquidity shortage in terms of an international currency. Our empirical results showed not only inertia in terms of change but also the impact of a liquidity shortage in an international currency on the utility of the relevant international currency.

Suggested Citation

  • OGAWA Eiji & MUTO Makoto, 2018. "What Determines Utility of International Currencies?," Discussion papers 18077, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  • Handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:18077
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    3. Barry Eichengreen & Livia Chiţu & Arnaud Mehl, 2016. "Stability or Upheaval? The Currency Composition of International Reserves in the Long Run," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 64(2), pages 354-380, June.
    4. Fama, Eugene F. & Gibbons, Michael R., 1984. "A comparison of inflation forecasts," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 327-348, May.
    5. Calvo, Guillermo A., 1981. "Devaluation: Levels versus rates," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 165-172, May.
    6. Patrick Honohan, 2008. "The Retreat of Deposit Dollarization," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(3), pages 247-268, December.
    7. Olivier Jean Blanchard & Stanley Fischer, 1989. "Lectures on Macroeconomics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262022834.
    8. Calvo, Guillermo A., 1985. "Currency substitution and the real exchange rate: the utility maximization approach," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 175-188, June.
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