The Geography of International Strategy: a multi-level framework
This article introduces a multi-level framework to structure and analyse FDI patterns. It is argued that three internationalisation strategies currently simultaneously shape the globalisation of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): classical internationalisation, emerging internationalisation and competitive internationalisation. De-internationalisation strategies are emphasised to challenge the uni-dimensionality and irreversibility of globalisation. The article states that the rise of competitive internationalisation among countries with similar location conditions, in particular within the European Union and between the European Union and the United States, over the 1990s is most salient. Competitive internationalisation is driven by politically motivated Regional Integration Agreements (RIAs), triggering restructuring related intra-regional FDI and 'locational tournaments' between regions in the attraction of inward FDI. The framework is instrumental in positioning FDI-theories in their geographical context and place internationalisation strategies in an evolutionary perspective.
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