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The Geography of International Strategy: a multi-level framework


  • van den Berghe, D.


This article introduces a multi-level framework to structure and analyse FDI patterns. It is argued that three internationalisation strategies currently simultaneously shape the globalisation of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): classical internationalisation, emerging internationalisation and competitive internationalisation. De-internationalisation strategies are emphasised to challenge the uni-dimensionality and irreversibility of globalisation. The article states that the rise of competitive internationalisation among countries with similar location conditions, in particular within the European Union and between the European Union and the United States, over the 1990s is most salient. Competitive internationalisation is driven by politically motivated Regional Integration Agreements (RIAs), triggering restructuring related intra-regional FDI and 'locational tournaments' between regions in the attraction of inward FDI. The framework is instrumental in positioning FDI-theories in their geographical context and place internationalisation strategies in an evolutionary perspective.

Suggested Citation

  • van den Berghe, D., 2001. "The Geography of International Strategy: a multi-level framework," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2001-51-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
  • Handle: RePEc:ems:eureri:112

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Edward M. Graham, 1978. "Transatlantic Investment by Multinational Firms: A Rivalistic Phenomenon?," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(1), pages 82-99, October.
    2. André Rodríguez-Pose, 2001. "Strategies of Waste: Bidding Wars in the Brazilian Automobile Sector," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(1), pages 134-154, March.
    3. Moon, Hwy-Chang & Roehl, Thomas W., 2001. "Unconventional foreign direct investment and the imbalance theory," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 197-215, April.
    4. Edward Brown Flowers, 1976. "Oligopolistic Reactions in European and Canadian Direct Investment in the United States," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 7(2), pages 43-56, June.
    5. Alan Rugman, 1980. "Internalization as a general theory of foreign direct investment: A re-appraisal of the literature," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 116(2), pages 365-379, June.
    6. George N. Yannopoulos, 1990. "Foreign Direct Investment and European Integration: The Evidence from the Formative Years of the European Community," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(3), pages 235-259, March.
    7. Susan Scott-Green & Jeremy Clegg, 1999. "The Determinants of New FDI Capital Flows into the EC: A Statistical Comparison of the USA and Japan," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(4), pages 597-616, December.
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    More about this item


    FDI; globalisation; internationalisation strategies; multinational enterprises;

    JEL classification:

    • F2 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business
    • L2 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
    • M - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics
    • M10 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - General

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