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The Gulf Cooperation Council countries: economic structures, recent developments and role in the global economy

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  • Sturm, Michael
  • Adolf, Petra
  • Peschel, Dominik
  • Stráský, Jan

Abstract

In the wake of high and rising oil prices since 2003, the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have seen dynamic economic development, enhancing their role in the global economy as investors and trade partners. Real GDP growth has been buoyant, with non- oil activity expanding faster than oil GDP. Macroeconomic developments have also been characterised by large fiscal and current account surpluses as a result of rising oil revenues, notwithstanding fiscal expansion and rapid import growth. The most significant macroeconomic challenge faced by GCC countries is rising inflation in an environment in which the contribution of monetary policy to containing inflationary pressure is constrained by the exchange rate regimes. The overall favourable macroeconomic backdrop of recent years has provided GCC countries with an opportunity to tackle long-standing structural challenges, such as the diversification of oil-centred economies and reform of the labour markets. In a global context, apart from developing into a pole of global economic growth, GCC countries - together with other oil-exporting countries - have become a major net supplier of capital in global markets, second only to East Asia. As a result, they have become part of the international policy debate on global imbalances. Furthermore, GCC countries are home to some of the world's largest sovereign wealth funds, which raises several financial stability issues. Their role as trade partners has also increased, with the European Union being the only major region in the world maintaining a significant surplus in bilateral trade with the GCC. GCC countries are also key players in global energy markets in terms of production, exports and the availability of spare capacity. Their role is likely to become even more pivotal in the future as they command vast oil and gas reserves and benefit from relatively low costs in exploiting oil reserves. JEL Classification: F14, E60, N15, O53, Q40, F40, F30

Suggested Citation

  • Sturm, Michael & Adolf, Petra & Peschel, Dominik & Stráský, Jan, 2008. "The Gulf Cooperation Council countries: economic structures, recent developments and role in the global economy," Occasional Paper Series 92, European Central Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbops:200892
    Note: 493824
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    Cited by:

    1. di Mauro, Filippo & Kaufmann, Robert K. & Karadeloglou, Pavlos, 2008. "Will oil prices decline over the long run?," Occasional Paper Series 98, European Central Bank.
    2. Marga PEETERS, 2011. "The Changing Pattern in International Trade and Capital Flows of the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries in Comparison with other Oil-Exporting Countries," Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology, ScientificPapers.org, vol. 1(7), pages 1-29, December.
    3. Dorrucci, Ettore & Meyer-Cirkel, Alexis & Santabárbara, Daniel, 2009. "Domestic financial development in emerging economies: evidence and implications," Occasional Paper Series 102, European Central Bank.
    4. Thompson, Henry & Toledo, Hugo, 2010. "Labor skills and factor proportions trade in the gulf cooperation council," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 407-411, June.
    5. Jeanne Amar & Jean-Francois Carpantier & Christelle Lecourt, 2018. "GCC Sovereign Wealth Funds: Why do they Take Control?," Working Papers halshs-01936882, HAL.
    6. Trabandt, Mathias & Slavík, Michal & Checherita-Westphal, Cristina & Maurer, Henri & Catz, Julia & Warmedinger, Thomas & Afonso, António & Leiner-Killinger, Nadine & van Riet, Ad & Valenta, Vilém & Ni, 2010. "Euro area fiscal policies and the crisis," Occasional Paper Series 109, European Central Bank.
    7. Matthieu Bussière & Emilia Pérez‐Barreiro & Roland Straub & Daria Taglioni, 2011. "Protectionist Responses to the Crisis: Global Trends and Implications," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34, pages 826-852, May.
    8. Ritter, Raymond, 2009. "Transnational governance in global finance: the principles for stable capital flows and fair debt restructuring in emerging markets," Occasional Paper Series 103, European Central Bank.
    9. Hubrich, Kirstin & Karlsson, Tohmas, 2010. "Trade consistency in the context of the Eurosystem projection exercises - an overview," Occasional Paper Series 108, European Central Bank.
    10. Vitale, Giovanni & Moutot, Philippe, 2009. "Monetary policy strategy in a global environment," Occasional Paper Series 106, European Central Bank.
    11. Filippo Di Mauro & Katrin Forster, "undated". "Globalisation and the competitiveness of the Euro area," Working Papers 5, Department of the Treasury, Ministry of the Economy and of Finance.
    12. Christian Dreger & Teymur Rahmani, 2016. "The impact of oil revenues on the Iranian economy and the Gulf states," OPEC Energy Review, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, vol. 40(1), pages 36-49, March.
    13. Kaya Abdullah & Tsai I-Tsung, 2016. "Inclusive Economic Institutions in the Gulf Cooperation Council States: Current Status and Theoretical Implications," Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, De Gruyter, vol. 12(2), pages 139-173, August.
    14. Le Breton, Gwenaël & Be Duc, Louis, 2009. "Flow-of-funds analysis at the ECB: framework and applications," Occasional Paper Series 105, European Central Bank.
    15. Murshed, Hasan & Nakibullah, Ashraf, 2015. "Price level and inflation in the GCC countries," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 239-252.
    16. Nusair, Salah A., 2019. "Oil price and inflation dynamics in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 181(C), pages 997-1011.
    17. Winkler, Adalbert & Polański, Zbigniew, 2008. "Russia, EU enlargement and the euro," Occasional Paper Series 93, European Central Bank.
    18. Awadh Ahmed Mohammed Gamal & Jauhari B.Dahalan, 2015. "Estimating the Size of the Underground Economy in Saudi: Evidence from Gregory-Hansen Cointegration Based Currency Demand Approach," Abstract of Economic, Finance and Management Outlook, Conscientia Beam, vol. 3, pages 1-6.
    19. Poloni, Paolo & Agresti, Anna Maria & Baudino, Patrizia, 2008. "The ECB and IMF indicators for the macro-prudential analysis of the banking sector: a comparison of the two approaches," Occasional Paper Series 99, European Central Bank.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Financial Stability; global imbalances; Gulf Cooperation Council; oil market; sovereign wealth funds;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • E60 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - General
    • N15 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations - - - Asia including Middle East
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East
    • Q40 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - General
    • F40 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - General
    • F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General

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