IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Structural reforms in EMU and the role of monetary policy – a survey of the literature

  • Nadine Leiner-Killinger
  • Víctor López Pérez
  • Roger Stiegert
  • Giovanni Vitale
Registered author(s):

    The need for structural reforms in the euro area has often been advocated. These reforms would improve the welfare of euro area citizens and also, as a welcome side-effect, facilitate the conduct of monetary policy. Against this background, a particularly relevant question that can be posed is whether monetary policy should help implement structural reforms. The objective of this paper is to provide a review of the existing literature on structural reforms in Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and to discuss the possible ways in which monetary policy could support the structural reform process. In the context of EMU, the main conclusions that emerge are that the monetary policy for the euro area is not the appropriate tool for mitigating the potential and uncertain short-term costs of reforms or for providing incentives for structural reforms at the national level. However, credible monetary policy aimed at price stability can improve the functioning of the supply side of the economy and contribute to an environment which is conducive to welfare-enhancing structural changes. In addition, the ECB’s contribution to the implementation of structural reforms takes the form of analysis, assessment and communication.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by European Central Bank in its series Occasional Paper Series with number 66.

    in new window

    Length: 42 pages
    Date of creation: Jul 2007
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbops:20070066
    Contact details of provider: Postal:
    60640 Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    Phone: +49 69 1344 0
    Fax: +49 69 1344 6000
    Web page:

    More information through EDIRC

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Micael Castanheira De Moura & Stéphane Carcillo & Vincenzo Galasso & Giuseppe Nicoletti & Enrico Perotti & Lidia Tsyganok, 2006. "How to gain political support for reforms?," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/10019, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    2. Messina, Julián & Vallanti, Giovanna, 2006. "Job Flow Dynamics and Firing Restrictions: Evidence from Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 2045, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Nicoletti, Giuseppe & Scarpetta, Stefano, 2003. "Regulation, productivity, and growth : OECD evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2944, The World Bank.
    4. Philippe Aghion & Nick Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2005. "Competition and Innovation: an Inverted-U Relationship," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(2), pages 701-728.
    5. Barry Eichengreen, James Tobin, and Charles Wyplosz., 1994. "Two Cases for Sand in the Wheels of International Finance," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C94-045, University of California at Berkeley.
    6. Beetsma, Roel & Debrun, Xavier, 2003. "Reconciling Stability and Growth: Smart Pacts and Structural Reforms," CEPR Discussion Papers 3930, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Barry Eichengreen & Charles Wyplosz, 1998. "The Stability Pact: more than a minor nuisance?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 13(26), pages 65-113, 04.
    8. Sibert, Anne, 1999. "Monetary Integration and Economic Reform," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(452), pages 78-92, January.
    9. Caballero, R-J & Hammour, M-L, 1996. "The Macroeconomics of Specificity," Working papers 96-25, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    10. Alberto Alesina & George-Marios Angeletos, 2004. "Fairness and Redistribution," NajEcon Working Paper Reviews 122247000000000306,
    11. Christoffel, Kai & Linzert, Tobias, 2006. "The role of real wage rigidity and labor market frictions for unemployment and inflation dynamics," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2006,11, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
    12. Nicola Cetorelli, 2001. "Does bank concentration lead to concentration in industrial sectors?," Working Paper Series WP-01-01, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    13. Begg, David, 2000. "Beyond The Design Of Monetary Policy Alone: Fiscal Commitment, Macro Coordination, And Structural Adjustment," CEPR Discussion Papers 2637, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. William T. Dickens & Lorenz Goette & Erica L. Groshen & Steinar Holden & Julian Messina & Mark E. Schweitzer & Jarkko Turunen & Melanie Ward, 2007. "How wages change: micro evidence from the international wage flexibility project," Staff Reports 275, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    15. Richard Morris & Hedwig Ongena & Ludger Schuknecht, 2006. "The reform and implementation of the Stability and Growth Pact," Occasional Paper Series 47, European Central Bank.
    16. Galiani, Sebastian & Hopenhayn, Hugo A., 2003. "Duration and risk of unemployment in Argentina," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 199-212, June.
    17. Alan Auerbach, 2002. "Is There a Role for Discretionary Fiscal Policy?," NBER Working Papers 9306, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Alonso-Borrego, César & Aguirregabiria, Víctor, 1999. "Labor contracts and flexibility : evidence from a labor markt reform in Spain," DES - Working Papers. Statistics and Econometrics. WS 6302, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Estadística.
    19. Bayoumi, Tamim & Laxton, Doug & Pesenti, Paolo, 2004. "Benefits and Spillovers of Greater Competition in Europe: A Macroeconomic Assessment," CEPR Discussion Papers 4481, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. Teulings,Coen & Hartog,Joop, 1998. "Corporatism or Competition?," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521590730, November.
    21. Olivier Blanchard & Augustin Landier, 2001. "The Perverse Effects of Partial Labor Market Reform: Fixed Duration Contracts in France," NBER Working Papers 8219, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    22. Hauptmeier, Sebastian & Heipertz, Martin & Schuknecht, Ludger, 2006. "Expenditure reform in industrialised countries: a case study approach," Working Paper Series 0634, European Central Bank.
    23. Nicola Brandt & Jean-Marc Burniaux & Romain Duval, 2005. "Assessing the OECD Jobs Strategy: Past Developments and Reforms," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 429, OECD Publishing.
    24. Helge Berger & Stephan Danninger, 2005. "Labor and Product Market Deregulation; Partial, Sequential, or Simultaneous Reform?," IMF Working Papers 05/227, International Monetary Fund.
    25. Olivier Blanchard & Jordi Galí, 2005. "Real Wage Rigidities and the New Keynesian Model," Working Papers 243, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    26. André Sapir & Marco Buti, 1998. "Economic policy in EMU," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/8078, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    27. Alesina, Alberto & Drazen, Allan, 1991. "Why Are Stabilizations Delayed?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1170-88, December.
    28. James Tobin, 1991. "Price Flexibility and Output Stability: An Old Keynesian View," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 994R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Sep 1991.
    29. Andrew Caplin & John Leahy, 1993. "Sectoral Shocks, Learning, and Aggregate Fluctuations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(4), pages 777-794.
    30. Francesco Daveri & Guido Tabellini, . "Unemployment, Growth and Taxation in Industrial Countries," Working Papers 122, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    31. Athanasios Orphanides & Simon Van_Norden, 2000. "The Reliability of Output Gap Estimates in Real Time," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0768, Econometric Society.
    32. Hall, Robert E & Lazear, Edward P, 1984. "The Excess Sensitivity of Layoffs and Quits to Demand," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(2), pages 233-57, April.
    33. Gilles Saint Paul & Samuel Bentolila, 2000. "Will EMU increase eurosclerosis?," Economics Working Papers 449, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
    34. Coricelli, Fabrizio & Cukierman, Alex & Dalmazzo, Alberto, 2001. "Economic Performance and Stabilization Policy in a Monetary Union with Imperfect Labour and Goods Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 2745, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    35. Helge Berger & Stephan Danninger, 2006. "The Employment Effects of Labor and Product Markets Deregulation and their Implications for Structural Reform," CESifo Working Paper Series 1709, CESifo Group Munich.
    36. Mariassunta Giannetti & Luigi Guiso & Tullio Jappelli & Mario Padula & Marco Pagano, 2002. "Financial Market Integration, Corporate Financing and Economic Growth," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 179, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    37. Anthony M Annett, 2007. "Lessons from Successful Labor Market Reformers in Europe," IMF Policy Discussion Papers 07/1, International Monetary Fund.
    38. Andrea Bassanini & Romain Duval, 2006. "Employment Patterns in OECD Countries: Reassessing the Role of Policies and Institutions," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 486, OECD Publishing.
    39. Nicola Cetorelli, 2003. "Life-cycle dynamics in industrial sectors: the role of banking market structure," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jul, pages 135-148.
    40. Saint-Paul, Gilles, 1997. "Business Cycles and Long-Run Growth," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(3), pages 145-53, Autumn.
    41. John B. Taylor, 2000. "Reassessing Discretionary Fiscal Policy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(3), pages 21-36, Summer.
    42. Edward L. Glaeser & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2004. "Do Institutions Cause Growth?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 271-303, 09.
    43. Marco Buti, 2006. "Will the new stability and growth pact succeed? An economic and political perspective," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 241, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    44. Saint-Paul, Gilles, 2002. "Macroeconomic Fluctuations and the Timing of Labor Market Reform," IDEI Working Papers 146, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
    45. F. Gulcin Ozkan & Anne Sibert & Alan Sutherland, . "Monetary Union, Entry Conditions and Economic Reform," EPRU Working Paper Series 00-03, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
    46. Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey & Christian Lundblad, 2004. "Growth Volatility and Financial Liberalization," NBER Working Papers 10560, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    47. Samuelson, William & Zeckhauser, Richard, 1988. "Status Quo Bias in Decision Making," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 7-59, March.
    48. Saint-Paul, Gilles, 2002. "Some Thoughts on Macroeconomic Fluctuations and the Timing of Labor Market Reform," IZA Discussion Papers 611, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    49. Nicholai Benalal & Juan Luis Diaz del Hoyo & Beatrice Pierluigi & Nikiforos Vidalis, 2006. "Output growth differentials across the euro area countries - some stylised facts," Occasional Paper Series 45, European Central Bank.
    50. Dixit, Avinash, 2001. "Games of monetary and fiscal interactions in the EMU," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 589-613, May.
    51. Federico Etro, 2004. "Innovation by leaders," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(495), pages 281-303, 04.
    52. Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey & Christian Lundblad, 2001. "Does Financial Liberalization Spur Growth?," NBER Working Papers 8245, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    53. Carmen Pages, 2004. "A cost-benefit approach to labor market reform," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q 2, pages 67 - 85.
    54. Sibert, Anne & Sutherland, Alan, 2000. "Monetary union and labor market reform," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 421-435, August.
    55. Tito T. Boeri & Micael Castanheira De Moura & Riccardo R. Faini & Vincenzo Galasso, 2007. "Structural Reforms Without Prejudices," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/205662, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    56. Sébastien Jean & Giuseppe Nicoletti, 2015. "Product market regulation and wage premia in Europe and North America: An empirical investigation," International Economics, CEPII research center, issue 144, pages 1-28.
    57. Ad van Riet & Ekkehard Ernst & Christophe Madaschi & Fabrice Orlandi & Alvaro Santos Rivera & Benoît Robert & Jörg Döpke & Constantina Backinezos & Ioanna Bardakas & Esther Gordo Mora & Christian Baro, 2004. "Sectoral specialisation in the EU a macroeconomic perspective," Occasional Paper Series 19, European Central Bank.
    58. Hans-Werner Sinn, 2003. "The Laggard of Europe (CESifo Forum Vol. 4, Special Issue No. 1)," CESifo Forum, Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 4(SPECIALIS), pages 01-32, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbops:20070066. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Official Publications)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.