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Measuring Protection Over Time. Revenue And Protective Products In The 19th Century European Tariff Growth Debate

  • Antonio Tena Junguito


This paper shows the relevance of the strong and changing presence of the so-called fiscal products throughout European trade history, the bigger index number problems in periods and countries with higher levels and shares of manufacture tariffs in total imports and the different association between tariffs and growth according to development heterogeneity and the tariff average used. Evidence showed in this paper appear quite contrary to Bairoch traditional hypothesis on the positive role that protection played to foster Continental Europe industrialization before First War World. Conclusions suggests caution in the use of the conventional average tariffs and advises the estimation of alternative manufacture, agrarian and fiscal tariff average by countries as a necessary contribution for the better defined tariff growth debate.

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Paper provided by Universidad Carlos III, Instituto Figuerola de Historia y Ciencias Sociales in its series Working Papers in Economic History with number wh017204.

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Date of creation: Dec 2001
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cte:whrepe:wh017204
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  1. Estevadeordal, Antoni, 1997. "Measuring protection in the early twentieth century," European Review of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(01), pages 89-125, April.
  2. Douglas A. Irwin, 1997. "Higher Tariffs, Lower Revenues? Analyzing the Fiscal Aspects of the "Great Tariff Debate of 1888"," NBER Working Papers 6239, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. O'Rourke, K, 1997. "Tariffs and Growth in the Late 19th Century," Papers 97/18, College Dublin, Department of Political Economy-.
  4. Kevin H. O'Rourke, 1994. "Measuring protection : a cautionary tale," Working Papers 199423, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
  5. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 1996. "A New Approach to Evaluating Trade Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(1), pages 107-125.
  6. Edwards, Sebastian, 1998. "Openness, Productivity and Growth: What Do We Really Know?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(447), pages 383-98, March.
  7. Anderson, James E, 1998. "Trade Restrictiveness Benchmarks," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(449), pages 1111-25, July.
  8. Krueger, Anne O, 1997. "Trade Policy and Economic Development: How We Learn," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(1), pages 1-22, March.
  9. Edwards, Sebastian, 1993. "Openness, Trade Liberalization, and Growth in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(3), pages 1358-93, September.
  10. Douglas A. Irwin, 2002. "Did Import Substitution Promote Growth in the Late Nineteenth Century?," NBER Working Papers 8751, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Nye, John Vincent, 1993. "Reply to Irwin on Free Trade," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 53(01), pages 153-158, March.
  12. Francisco Rodriguez & Dani Rodrik, 1999. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic's Guide to Cross-National Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7081, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Federico, Giovanni & Tena, Antonio, 1998. "Was Italy a protectionist country?," European Review of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(01), pages 73-97, April.
  14. Irwin, Douglas A., 1993. "Free Trade and Protection in Nineteenth-Century Britain and France Revisited: A Comment on Nye," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 53(01), pages 146-152, March.
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