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Disability insurance and unemployment insurance as substitute pathways

Author

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  • Pierre Koning

    (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)

  • Daniël van Vuuren

    () (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)

Abstract

In this paper, we estimate the degree of substitution between enrolment into Disability Insurance (DI) and Unemployment Insurance (UI) in the Netherlands. Starting in the 1990s many policy measures aimed at reducing DI enrolment, and increase labour force participation. We quantify whether these policy measures have led to a reduction in hidden unemployment in DI. A side effect of the reforms may be increased pressure on UI. Therefore, we simultaneously estimate reverse substitution, that is, hidden disability in UI. To this end, we employ a sample of firms in the Dutch AVO database from the period 1993-2002. Using instrumental variables in a bivariate Tobit specification, we identify the hidden components in both respective schemes. The estimation results indicate that about 3% of all dismissals took place through DI, which implies that about one quarter of the DI enrolments observed in our sample in fact consists of hidden unemployment. We find no evidence for reverse substitution of disabled persons ending up in UI.

Suggested Citation

  • Pierre Koning & Daniël van Vuuren, 2006. "Disability insurance and unemployment insurance as substitute pathways," CPB Discussion Paper 70, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpb:discus:70
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Philip de Jong & Maarten Lindeboom & Bas van der Klaauw, 2011. "Screening Disability Insurance Applications," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 9(1), pages 106-129, February.
    2. Mark Duggan & Perry Singleton & Jae Song, 2005. "Aching to Retire? The Rise in the Full Retirement Age and its Impact on the Disability Rolls," NBER Working Papers 11811, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Pierre Koning & Daniël van Vuuren, 2006. "Hidden unemployment in disability insurance in the Netherlands; an empirical analysis based on employer data," CPB Discussion Paper 69, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    4. Wolter Hassink, 2000. "Job destruction through quits or layoffs?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(1), pages 45-47.
    5. Hassink, R. & van Ours, J.C. & Ridder, G., 1997. "Dismissal through disability," Other publications TiSEM b756763d-1536-4d61-84e4-9, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    6. Jonathan Gruber, 2000. "Disability Insurance Benefits and Labor Supply," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(6), pages 1162-1183, December.
    7. Chamberlain, Gary, 1984. "Panel data," Handbook of Econometrics,in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 22, pages 1247-1318 Elsevier.
    8. Rob Euwals & Daniel Vuuren & Ronald Wolthoff, 2010. "Early Retirement Behaviour in the Netherlands: Evidence From a Policy Reform," De Economist, Springer, vol. 158(3), pages 209-236, September.
    9. Regina Riphahn, 1997. "Disability retirement and unemployment - substitute pathways for labour force exit? An empirical test for the case of Germany," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(5), pages 551-561.
    10. Dan Black & Kermit Daniel & Seth Sanders, 2002. "The Impact of Economic Conditions on Participation in Disability Programs: Evidence from the Coal Boom and Bust," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 27-50, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Hugo Benítez-Silva & Richard Disney & Sergi Jiménez-Martín, 2010. "Disability, capacity for work and the business cycle: an international perspective," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 25, pages 483-536, July.
    2. Noelia Bernal & Frederic Vermeulen, 2014. "The Impact of an Increase in the Legal Retirement Age on the Effective Retirement Age," De Economist, Springer, vol. 162(2), pages 115-145, June.
    3. Rob Euwals & Annemiek van Vuren & Daniël van Vuuren, 2011. "The impact of reforms on labour market exit probabilities," CPB Discussion Paper 179, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    4. Vendrik Maarten & Cörvers Frank, 2009. "Male and female labour force participation: the role of dynamic adjustments to changes in labour demand, government policies and autonomous trends," Research Memorandum 036, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
    5. repec:wfo:wstudy:58532 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. van den Berg, Gerard J. & Hofmann, Barbara & Uhlendorff, Arne, 2016. "The Role of Sickness in the Evaluation of Job Search Assistance and Sanctions," IZA Discussion Papers 9626, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Jan-Maarten van Sonsbeek & Raymond H. J. M. Gradus, 2013. "Estimating the effects of recent disability reforms in the Netherlands," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 65(4), pages 832-855, October.
    8. Pierre Koning & Daniël van Vuuren, 2006. "Hidden unemployment in disability insurance in the Netherlands; an empirical analysis based on employer data," CPB Discussion Paper 69, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    9. Lammers, Marloes & Bloemen, Hans & Hochguertel, Stefan, 2013. "Job search requirements for older unemployed: Transitions to employment, early retirement and disability benefits," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 31-57.
    10. Lex Borghans & Anne C. Gielen & Erzo F. P. Luttmer, 2014. "Social Support Substitution and the Earnings Rebound: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity in Disability Insurance Reform," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 6(4), pages 34-70, November.
    11. Gijs Roelofs & Daniel Vuuren, 2017. "The Decentralization of Social Assistance and the Rise of Disability Insurance Enrolment," De Economist, Springer, vol. 165(1), pages 1-21, March.
    12. Euwals, Rob & van Vuren, Annemiek & van Vuuren, Daniel, 2011. "The Decline of Early Retirement Pathways in the Netherlands: An Empirical Analysis for the Health Care Sector," IZA Discussion Papers 5810, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. Eichhorst, Werner & Boeri, Tito & Braga, Michela & De Coen, An & Galasso, Vincenzo & Gerard, Maarten & Kendzia, Michael J. & Mayrhuber, Christine & Pedersen, Jakob Louis & Schmidl, Ricarda & Steiber, , 2013. "Combining the Entry of Young People in the Labour Market with the Retention of Older Workers," IZA Research Reports 53, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    14. de Groot, Nynke & Koning, Pierre, 2016. "Assessing the effects of disability insurance experience rating. The case of The Netherlands," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 304-317.
    15. Pierre Koning & Maarten Lindeboom, 2015. "The Rise and Fall of Disability Insurance Enrollment in the Netherlands," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 29(2), pages 151-172, Spring.
    16. repec:wfo:wstudy:46988 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. repec:bla:kyklos:v:70:y:2017:i:2:p:163-188 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Pilar García-Gómez & Hans-Martin Gaudecker & Maarten Lindeboom, 2011. "Health, disability and work: patterns for the working age population," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 18(2), pages 146-165, April.
    19. Bernal Lobato, N., 2014. "Essays in applied microeconomics," Other publications TiSEM 9b638b3d-2f83-452a-b2c8-c, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    20. repec:wfo:wstudy:58794 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
    • I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Behavior
    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor

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