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Puede Explicarse El Precio Externo Del Café Con Un Modelo Econometrico No Lineal?

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  • Franz Alonso Hamann S.

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Abstract

El precio internacional del café, como el de la mayoría de los productos primarios se ha caracterizado por la inestabilidad y las grandes fluctuaciones. La formación del precio del café verde es un proceso complejo que depende de una multiplicidad de variables, como la calidad y disponibilidad del producto, el lugar de origen, el sitio de compra, las expectativas de precios y las características del grano(1). Adicionalmente, el mercado internacional del café esta autorizado por la existencia de pactos y acuerdos entre los países productores y consumidores del grano que buscan fundamentalmente atacar la inestabilidad del mercado. En general, las investigaciones tradicionales han intentado modelar el proceso de formación de los precios internacionales del grano mediante sistemas de ecuaciones lineales de comportamiento que describen las relaciones entre oferta y demanda. Adicionalmente, en otro tipo de estudios en los que se emplean modelos de análisis de series de tiempo se presenta el problema que el modelaje de las series se fundamenta en el supuesto implícito de la linealidad del sistema que genera la trayectoria de las variables. Esta hipótesis, conocida como paradigma de Frisch Slutsky, no está basada en ningún conocimiento a-priori de la linealidad del sistema económico (2). Este trabajo busca, en primer lugar, encontrar evidencia de la presencia de no linealidades en la serie de tiempo del precio externo del café y segundo, determinar si es conveniente describir la dinámica de los precios mediante un modelo no lineal. Para cumplir con este objetivo, el artículo se ha dividido en cinco partes. En la primera, se exponen algunas características generales del comportamiento de los precios del grano a lo largo del presente siglo. En la segunda, se realiza el proceso de detección de no-linealidades en la serie de precios externos del café colombiano mediante el cálculo de un estadístico diseñado por Brock, Dechert y Scheinkman (1994). En la exposición del procedimiento de cálculo del estadístico, se plantea el comportamiento del precio externo del grano como descrito por un modelo econométrico lineal de intervención. El objetivo es comparar los alcances y limitaciones del modelo de intervención frente al modelo no lineal el cual se expone en la tercera sección, para escoger el que mejor describe el precio externo del café. Esto se realiza en la cuarta sección, en la cual se evalúan los modelos en términos del ajuste, la significancia de los parámetros y predicción. Por último, se extraen conclusiones de los resultados encontrados. (1) Para una exposición más clara de los determinantes del precio internacional del café ver Junguito y Pizano (1993) El comercio exterior y la política internacional del café, Cap.4. (2) Ver Pesaran y Potter (1993) en Nonlinear dynamics, chaos and econometrics:an introduction.

Suggested Citation

  • Franz Alonso Hamann S., 1996. "Puede Explicarse El Precio Externo Del Café Con Un Modelo Econometrico No Lineal?," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 003408, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000094:003408
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    References listed on IDEAS

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