Why Is the Bid Price Greater than the Ask? Price Discovery during the Nasdaq Pre-Opening
One fundamental issue in the study of market microstructures is that of price discovery. While most existing studies focus on the trading period, little is known whether and how much the non-trading period contributes to the price discovery. This paper offers a new perspective on the price discovery process by studying market makers' posting and revising of non-binding prices on Nasdaq during the one-and-half hours pre-opening period. We examine a unique data set containing all the market maker quotes and identifications collected for 50 of the most active Nasdaq stocks. Our empirical investigation shows there is strong evidence that non-binding prices contain information, and there is significant price discovery during the pre-opening period. In the absence of trades, Nasdaq dealers use locked market notes (e.g., the situation where the best bid price among all market makers is greater than the best ask) as an important device to indicate to other market makers which direction the price should move and what the opening price should be. Furthermore, we find evidence that there exists a leadership pattern among market makers, particularly for the most active stocks. Chaque matin avant l'ouverture du Nasdaq il y a une session durant laquelle les faiseurs de marché font des cotations sans exécutions d'ordres. Malgré le fait qu'il n'y a pas de transactions pendant cette période, il s'y produit une activité importante de soumission et de révision des cotations. Nous étudions l'information révélée par les cotations de prix d'achat et de vente. Notre banque de données contient l'identification des participants, ce qui nous permet de tester plusieurs hypothèses sur la dynamique de la formation du prix d'ouverture. Nous trouvons notamment que certains faiseurs de marché prennent un role de leaders.
|Date of creation:||01 May 1998|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (514) 985-4000
Fax: (514) 985-4039
Web page: http://www.cirano.qc.ca/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Madhavan, Ananth & Richardson, Matthew & Roomans, Mark, 1997.
"Why Do Security Prices Change? A Transaction-Level Analysis of NYSE Stocks,"
Review of Financial Studies,
Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 1035-64.
- Ananth Madhavan & Matthew Richardson & Mark Roomans, . "Why Do Security Prices Change? A Transaction-Level Analysis of NYSE Stocks," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 20-94, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
- Ananth Madhavan & Matthew Richardson & Mark Roomans, 1996. "Why Do Security Prices Change? A Transaction-Level Analysis of NYSE Stocks," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 96-34, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
- Godek, Paul E., 1996. "Why Nasdaq market makers avoid odd-eighth quotes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 465-474, July.
- Hasbrouck, Joel, 1991. " Measuring the Information Content of Stock Trades," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 179-207, March.
- Kyle, Albert S, 1985. "Continuous Auctions and Insider Trading," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1315-35, November.
- Bruno Biais & Pierre Hillion & Chester Spatt, 1999. "Price Discovery and Learning during the Preopening Period in the Paris Bourse," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(6), pages 1218-1248, December.
- Glosten, Lawrence R. & Milgrom, Paul R., 1985.
"Bid, ask and transaction prices in a specialist market with heterogeneously informed traders,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 71-100, March.
- Lawrence R. Glosten & Paul R. Milgrom, 1983. "Bid, Ask and Transaction Prices in a Specialist Market with Heterogeneously Informed Traders," Discussion Papers 570, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Farrell, Joseph, 1995. "Talk Is Cheap," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 186-90, May.
- Glosten, Lawrence R. & Harris, Lawrence E., 1988. "Estimating the components of the bid/ask spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 123-142, May.
- Battalio, Robert & Greene, Jason & Jennings, Robert, 1997. "Do Competing Specialists and Preferencing Dealers Affect Market Quality?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 969-93.
- Joseph Farrell & Matthew Rabin, 1996. "Cheap Talk," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 10(3), pages 103-118, Summer.
- Chan, K C & Christie, William G & Schultz, Paul H, 1995. "Market Structure and the Intraday Pattern of Bid-Ask Spreads for NASDAQ Securities," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(1), pages 35-60, January.
- Bessembinder, Hendrik & Chan, Kalok & Seguin, Paul J., 1996. "An empirical examination of information, differences of opinion, and trading activity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 105-134, January.
- Barclay, Michael J. & Warner, Jerold B., 1993. "Stealth trading and volatility : Which trades move prices?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 281-305, December.
- Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Macroeconomics and Reality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 1-48, January.
- Easley, David, et al, 1996. " Liquidity, Information, and Infrequently Traded Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1405-36, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:98s-14. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Webmaster)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.