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Initiatives de Promotion de la santé au travail : Un examen des enjeux et du contexte au Québec et au Canada

Author

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  • Joanne Castonguay
  • Benoit Dostie
  • Christian Moroy

Abstract

Les études sur les avantages financiers des initiatives de Promotion de la santé au travail (PST) se multiplient. L'intérêt pour ces études provient à la fois des entreprises et des gouvernements. D'une part, les entreprises perçoivent ces programmes comme un moyen potentiel d'augmenter leur productivité face à la concurrence mondiale qui s'intensifie. D'autre part, les gouvernements, cherchant des moyens de diminuer ou de freiner l'augmentation des coûts de la santé, voient ces initiatives comme un levier supplémentaire pour atteindre leurs objectifs budgétaires. Le constat qui ressort de ces études et qu'un dollar investi en PST génère en moyenne trois dollars comme bénéfice. Ces bénéfices prennent principalement la forme d'une diminution de l'absentéisme et de coûts d'assurance santé moindres. Les effets indirects sur la productivité sont moins étudiés. Malgré ces constatations, peu d'entreprises investissent dans la PST et de nombreux employés n'ont pas adhéré aux programmes existants. Au Canada, on constate une diminution récente du nombre d'entreprises participant aux initiatives de PST. Plusieurs raisons sont avancées pour expliquer ce manque d'implication. Une première explication repose sur le fait que les études existantes ne tiennent pas souvent compte de tous les facteurs expliquant la présence d'initiatives de PST en entreprise. En conséquence, bien que les entreprises qui implémentent des initiatives de PST en retirent des bénéfices, il n'est pas dit que celles où ces programmes sont absents retireraient les mêmes bénéfices advenant l'implantation de telles initiatives. Une deuxième explication avance que la faible incidence de ces programmes est causée par un manque général d'intérêt et de connaissances du public à ce propos, de ressources insuffisantes au sein des organisations et de faibles pressions politiques. Misant sur la seconde explication, plusieurs gouvernements tels les États-Unis et l'Allemagne ont adopté des mesures législatives qui encouragent la participation à la PST et récompensent les efforts à cet égard. Deux exemples de telles mesures sont la version modifiée du Healthy Workforce Act (loi concernant la santé de la main-d'uvre), adoptée par le Sénat américain en 2010, et les modifications du German Tax Act (loi sur l'impôt de l'Allemagne) adoptées en 2009. Ces deux lois offrent des allégements fiscaux aux employeurs qui mettent en place certains programmes de PST. Néanmoins, nous concluons que des études supplémentaires seraient nécessaires pour bien évaluer les bénéfices nets de tels programmes.

Suggested Citation

  • Joanne Castonguay & Benoit Dostie & Christian Moroy, 2011. "Initiatives de Promotion de la santé au travail : Un examen des enjeux et du contexte au Québec et au Canada," CIRANO Project Reports 2011rp-15, CIRANO.
  • Handle: RePEc:cir:cirpro:2011rp-15
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    File URL: https://cirano.qc.ca/files/publications/2011RP-15.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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