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Comparing Density Forecasts via Weighted Likelihood Ratio Tests: Asymptotic and Bootstrap Methods

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  • Giacomini, Raffaella

Abstract

This paper proposes and analyzes tests that can be used to compare the accuracy of alternative conditional density forecasts of a variable. The tests are also valid in the broader context of model selection based on out-of-sample predictive ability. We restrict attention to the case of density forecasts derived from non-nested parametric models, with known or estimated parameters. The evaluation makes use of scoring rules, which are loss functions defined over the density forecast and the realizations of the variable. In particular, we consider the logarithmic scoring rule, which leads to the development of asymptotic and bootstrap 'weighted likelihood ratio' tests. The name comes from the fact that the tests compare weighted averages of the scores over the available sample, as a way to focus attention on different regions of the distribution of the variable. For a uniform weight function, the asymptotic test can be interpreted as an extension of Vuong (1989)' s likelihood ratio test for non-nested hypotheses to time series data and to an out-of-sample testing framework. A Monte Carlo simulation explores the size and power properties of this last test in finite samples. An application using S&P500 daily returns shows how the tests can be used to compare the performance of density forecasts obtained from GARCH models with different distributional assumptions.

Suggested Citation

  • Giacomini, Raffaella, 2002. "Comparing Density Forecasts via Weighted Likelihood Ratio Tests: Asymptotic and Bootstrap Methods," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt59s2g5j5, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:ucsdec:qt59s2g5j5
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. West, Kenneth D, 1996. "Asymptotic Inference about Predictive Ability," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(5), pages 1067-1084, September.
    2. Francis X. Diebold & Jose A. Lopez, 1995. "Forecast evaluation and combination," Research Paper 9525, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    3. Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", pages 125-132.
    4. Christoffersen, Peter F. & Diebold, Francis X., 1997. "Optimal Prediction Under Asymmetric Loss," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(06), pages 808-817, December.
    5. Lopez, Jose A, 2001. "Evaluating the Predictive Accuracy of Volatility Models," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(2), pages 87-109, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Isao Ishida, 2005. "Scanning Multivariate Conditional Densities with Probability Integral Transforms," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-369, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    2. Clements, Michael P. & Franses, Philip Hans & Swanson, Norman R., 2004. "Forecasting economic and financial time-series with non-linear models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 169-183.
    3. Torben G. Andersen & Tim Bollerslev & Peter F. Christoffersen & Francis X. Diebold, 2005. "Volatility Forecasting," PIER Working Paper Archive 05-011, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
    4. Andersen, Torben G. & Bollerslev, Tim & Christoffersen, Peter F. & Diebold, Francis X., 2006. "Volatility and Correlation Forecasting," Handbook of Economic Forecasting, Elsevier.
    5. Raffaella Giacomini & Halbert White, 2006. "Tests of Conditional Predictive Ability," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(6), pages 1545-1578, November.
    6. Valentina Corradi & Norman R. Swanson, 2003. "A Test for Comparing Multiple Misspecified Conditional Distributions," Departmental Working Papers 200314, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
    7. Corradi, Valentina & Swanson, Norman R., 2006. "Predictive density and conditional confidence interval accuracy tests," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 135(1-2), pages 187-228.
    8. Corradi, Valentina & Swanson, Norman R., 2004. "A test for the distributional comparison of simulated and historical data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 185-193, November.
    9. Valentina Corradi & Norman Swanson, 2003. "The Block Bootstrap for Parameter Estimation Error In Recursive Estimation Schemes, With Applications to Predictive Evaluation," Departmental Working Papers 200313, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
    10. Hall, Stephen G. & Mitchell, James, 2007. "Combining density forecasts," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 1-13.
    11. Stefania D'Amico, 2005. "Density selection and combination under model ambiguity: an application to stock returns," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2005-09, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    12. Stefania D'Amico, 2004. "Density Estimation and Combination under Model Ambiguity," Computing in Economics and Finance 2004 273, Society for Computational Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    density forecasting; scoring rules; predictive ability; forecast comparison;

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods

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