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An Empirical Analysis of Causality in the Relationship Between Telecommuting and Residential and Job Relocation


  • Ory, David T
  • Mokhtarian, Patricia L


Researchers have questioned whether the ability to telecommute is encouraging workers to relocate to more desirable residences farther from work, and in doing so, exacerbate sprawl and increase their net vehicle-miles traveled. The research presented here directly asks, is telecommuting a "friend or foe" of travel-reducing policies? Given that telecommuters tend to have longer commutes than non-telecommuters, is the ability to telecommute prompting workers to move farther away from work? Or, does the ability to telecommute allow those who for other reasons have already chosen, or would in any case choose, to live in more distant locations to commute less frequently? These questions are addressed using data collected from more than 200 State of California workers, including current, former, and non-telecommuters. The survey inquired retrospectively about their residential and job relocations, as well as their telecommuting engagements, over a ten-year period. The results indicate that, as expected, residential and job moves that are temporally associated with telecommuting episodes tend to increase commute time and length compared to other moves – though the evidence is not statistically significant. Analyzing the temporal order of telecommuting engagement and residential relocation, the data show that those who are telecommuting and then move actually tend to relocate closer to their workplace, whereas those who begin telecommuting following a residential relocation tended to have moved much farther from their workplace. For job relocations, the results differed slightly. Here, both key casual groups (those who are inferred to have their relocation caused by telecommuting and those who are inferred to have their telecommuting engagement caused by relocation) relocate, on average, to jobs farther from home. Analysis of the stated importance of telecommuting to specific residential relocations did not show a convincing effect toward more distant moves. Linear regression models of the change in one-way commute length following a residential relocation confirm that the beginning of a telecommuting engagement following the move is associated with increases in commute length, whereas engagement before the move is not. Thus, the evidence more strongly supports the positive view of telecommuting, that it is ameliorating the negative transportation impacts of moves that occur for other reasons.

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  • Ory, David T & Mokhtarian, Patricia L, 2005. "An Empirical Analysis of Causality in the Relationship Between Telecommuting and Residential and Job Relocation," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt5xv6r94d, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt5xv6r94d

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Handy, Susan L. & Salomon, Ilan, 1995. "Methodological issues in the estimation of the travel, energy, and air quality impacts of telecommuting," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 283-302, July.
    2. Ingrid Gould Ellen & Katherine Hempstead, 2002. "Telecommuting and the Demand for Urban Living: A Preliminary Look at White-collar Workers," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 39(4), pages 749-766, April.
    3. Qing Shen, 2000. "New telecommunications and residential location flexibility," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 32(8), pages 1445-1463, August.
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    1. Ory, David T & Mokhtarian, Patricia L, 2007. "Which Came First, the Telecommuting or the Residential Relocation? An Empirical Analysis of Causality," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt18r9588k, University of California Transportation Center.

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    UCD-ITS-RR-05-03; Engineering;


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