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Dynamics and Limited Cooperation In International Environmental Agreements


  • Karp, Larry
  • Sacheti, Sandeep


The amount of cooperation needed to improve the welfare of signatories of International Environmental Agreements (lEAs), in the presence of market imperfections, depends on the characteristics of pollution. In a dynamic model, the conventional wisdom on the effect of free-riding needs to be modified for certain types of pollution problems. For local pollution problems, a sufficient level of free-riding actually promotes signatories' welfare. For global pollution problems, the conventional wisdom is correct insofar as free-riding makes it more difficult to form a successful lEA. However, for some global pollution problems, free-tiding may disappear. A static model may overstate or understate the difficulty of forming a successful lEA. The effect of an lEA is sensitive to differences between the duration of the lEA and agents' planning horizon.

Suggested Citation

  • Karp, Larry & Sacheti, Sandeep, 1997. "Dynamics and Limited Cooperation In International Environmental Agreements," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt4sb827mk, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:agrebk:qt4sb827mk

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bohm Peter, 1993. "Incomplete International Cooperation to Reduce CO2 Emissions: Alternative Policies," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 258-271, May.
    2. Bloch, Francis & Ghosal, Sayantan, 1997. "Stable Trading Structures in Bilateral Oligopolies," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 368-384, June.
    3. Ulph, A., 1994. "Environmental policy and international trade: a survey of recent economic analysis," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9423, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
    4. Karp, Larry & Sacheti, Sandeep, 1996. "Limited Cooperation in International Environmental Agreements," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt9qm8158m, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
    5. Hoel Michael, 1994. "Efficient Climate Policy in the Presence of Free Riders," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 259-274, November.
    6. Brander, James A. & Scott Taylor, M., 1997. "International trade between consumer and conservationist countries," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 267-297, November.
    7. Carraro, Carlo & Siniscalco, Domenico, 1993. "Strategies for the international protection of the environment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 309-328, October.
    8. Brander, James A. & Spencer, Barbara J., 1985. "Export subsidies and international market share rivalry," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1-2), pages 83-100, February.
    9. Dixit, Avinash K, 1986. "Comparative Statics for Oligopoly," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 27(1), pages 107-122, February.
    10. Gaudet, Gerard & Salant, Stephen W, 1991. "Increasing the Profits of a Subset of Firms in Oligopoly Models with Strategic Substitutes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(3), pages 658-665, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rubio, Santiago J. & Ulph, Alistair, 2007. "An infinite-horizon model of dynamic membership of international environmental agreements," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 296-310, November.


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