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Re-inventing New Zealand: Institutions Output and Patents 1870-1939




New estimates of commodity output and patenting are used to explore New Zealand’s transition from extensive to intensive growth. By investigating the cointegrating and causal relationships among the output of 25 industries we show that a small number of common trends shaped the contours of her economic development. In turn the leading industries were driven by knowledge growth as reflected in patents statistics. New Zealand's distinctive institutions and human capital fostered the knowledge which transformed the farming landscape, promoted wider land ownership, and created a production system which integrated farm and factory to promote intensive growth.

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  • David Greasley & Les Oxley, 2008. "Re-inventing New Zealand: Institutions Output and Patents 1870-1939," Working Papers in Economics 08/15, University of Canterbury, Department of Economics and Finance.
  • Handle: RePEc:cbt:econwp:08/15

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Magee, Gary Bryan, 1999. "Technological Development and Foreign Patenting: Evidence from 19th-Century Australia," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 344-359, October.
    2. Greasley, David & Oxley, Les, 2007. "Patenting, intellectual property rights and sectoral outputs in Industrial Revolution Britain, 1780-1851," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 139(2), pages 340-354, August.
    3. G. R. Hawke, 1979. "Acquisitiveness and Equality in New Zealand's Economic Development," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 32(3), pages 376-390, August.
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    5. La Porta, Rafael, et al, 1997. "Trust in Large Organizations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(2), pages 333-338, May.
    6. Oded Galor & Omer Moav & Dietrich Vollrath, 2009. "Inequality in Landownership, the Emergence of Human-Capital Promoting Institutions, and the Great Divergence," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 76(1), pages 143-179.
    7. David Greasley & Les Oxley, 2008. "The Pastoral Boom, the Rural Land Market, and Long Swings in New Zealand Economic Growth 1873-1939," Working Papers in Economics 08/02, University of Canterbury, Department of Economics and Finance.
    8. Sokoloff, Kenneth L. & Khan, B. Zorina, 1990. "The Democratization of Invention During Early Industrialization: Evidence from the United States, 1790–1846," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 50(02), pages 363-378, June.
    9. Michael McAleer & Les Oxley, 1998. "Cointegration in Practice," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 417-422, December.
    10. S. Encel & A. Inglis, 1966. "Patents, Inventions and Economic Progress," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 42(1-4), pages 572-588, March.
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    12. Greasley, David & Oxley, Les, 2000. "Measuring New Zealand's GDP 1865-1933: A Cointegration-Based Approach," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 46(3), pages 351-368, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Dan Liu & Christopher M. Meissner, 2013. "Market Potential and the Rise of US Productivity Leadership," NBER Working Papers 18819, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Liu, Dan & Meissner, Christopher M., 2015. "Market potential and the rise of US productivity leadership," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 72-87.

    More about this item


    Growth; Institutions; Patents; Common trends; Commodity output; New Zealand Research and Development;

    JEL classification:

    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O43 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Institutions and Growth
    • O14 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
    • N17 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations - - - Africa; Oceania
    • N77 - Economic History - - Economic History: Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, and Other Services - - - Africa; Oceania

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