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Political Reservations and Rural Public Good Provision in India

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  • Nandini Krishnan

    () (Department of Economics, Boston University)

Abstract

This paper asks whether political representation for historically disadvantaged groups can serve as an effective means to redress historical inequities. The Indian Constitution mandates reservations for two such groups, Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST), in federal and state legislatures. While this policy has been successful in ensuring the political presence of minority legislators, evidence on their performance in serving the interests of their electorate is limited to the analysis of aggregate expenditure patterns. This paper is the first to establish a causal link between the reservation of seats in state legislatures and rural public good provision, and to explore its implications for the inter- and within-district pattern of provision. The sample is drawn from 9 Indian states, and uses village census data aggregated to 64 districts and 610 electoral constituencies. The empirical strategy exploits features of the process of reservation to identify an exogenous source of variation that affects reservation discontinuously. With a few exceptions, I find no evidence that ST legislators perform any differently than legislators elected from unreserved constituencies. However, SC legislators perform better, providing greater access to educational facilities, in particular, primary schools, within their districts and constituencies. In addition, these schools are located within constituencies so as to favor of their own community, as well as ST voters. Overall, these findings do not support the prediction that political reservation adversely affects the responsiveness to minority interests or politician quality, at least insofar as these affect the provision of public goods.

Suggested Citation

  • Nandini Krishnan, 2007. "Political Reservations and Rural Public Good Provision in India," Boston University - Department of Economics - The Institute for Economic Development Working Papers Series dp-175, Boston University - Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:bos:iedwpr:dp-175
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    File URL: http://www.bu.edu/econ/ied/dp/papers/Political%20Reservations%20and%20Rural%20Public%20Good%20Provision%20in%20India.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Esther Duflo, 2005. "Why Political Reservations?," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 668-678, 04/05.
    2. Timothy Besley & Rohini Pande & Lupin Rahman & Vijayendra Rao, 2004. "The Politics of Public Good Provision: Evidence from Indian Local Governments," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(2-3), pages 416-426, 04/05.
    3. Banerjee, Abhijit & Somanathan, Rohini, 2007. "The political economy of public goods: Some evidence from India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 287-314, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Klaus Deininger & Songqing Jin & Hari K. Nagarajan & Fang Xia, 2015. "Does Female Reservation Affect Long-Term Political Outcomes? Evidence from Rural India," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(1), pages 32-49, January.
    2. Kshitij Chaudhary, 2015. "The effect of political decentralisation and affirmative action on Multidimensional Poverty Index: evidence from Indian States," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 17(1), pages 27-49, April.
    3. Kaletski, Elizabeth & Prakash, Nishith, 2016. "Does Political Reservation for Minorities Affect Child Labor? Evidence from India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 50-69.
    4. Bhalotra, Sonia R. & Clots-Figueras, Irma & Iyer, Lakshmi, 2013. "Path-Breakers: How Does Women's Political Participation Respond to Electoral Success?," IZA Discussion Papers 7771, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Nagarajan, Hari K. & Deininger, Klaus & Jin, Songqing, 2011. "Can political reservations affect political equilibria in the long-term? Evidence from local elections in rural India," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2011 59, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
    6. repec:taf:oxdevs:v:45:y:2017:i:4:p:499-521 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Kaletski, Elizabeth & Prakash, Nishith, 2014. "Can Elected Minority Representatives Affect Health Worker Visits? Evidence from India," IZA Discussion Papers 8387, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Bhalotra, Sonia & Clots-Figueras, Irma & Iyer, Lakshmi, 2013. "Path-Breakers: How Does Women’s Political Participation Respond to Electoral Success?," Economics Discussion Papers 9008, University of Essex, Department of Economics.

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