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Does Fintech Lending Lower Financing Costs? Evidence From An Emerging Market

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  • Jose Renato Haas Ornelas
  • Alexandre Reggi Pecora

Abstract

Using proprietary data of virtually all unsecured working capital loans to small businesses in Brazil, we find that online Peer-to-Peer (P2P) lenders focus on smaller and riskier firms already served by banks. P2P clients get lower interest rates compared to traditional banks. Once they borrow from P2Ps, they find a lower rate on subsequent bank loans, indicating that banks try to recapture runaway borrowers. In response to P2P entry, incumbent banks in oligopolistic markets decrease their lending rates by 2.5 percentage points and expand credit to older firms with difficulty accessing credit. We rationalize these findings in a structural IO model of the banking sector, where banks and P2Ps have different profit functions and compete for clients with risk heterogeneity. We use the estimated model to calculate welfare gains. P2Ps significantly increase social welfare in oligopolistic markets by offering lower interest rates to riskier borrowers and forcing the banks to do the same. Welfare gains range from 10% of the local output in municipalities with only one incumbent bank to 1% in those with five banks.

Suggested Citation

  • Jose Renato Haas Ornelas & Alexandre Reggi Pecora, 2022. "Does Fintech Lending Lower Financing Costs? Evidence From An Emerging Market," Working Papers Series 571, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:bcb:wpaper:571
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    References listed on IDEAS

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