Fiat Money and the Value of Binding Portfolio Constraints
It is well known that, under uniform impatience, positive net supply assets are free of bubbles for non-arbitrage kernel deflators that yield finite present values of wealth. However, this does not mean that prices cannot be above the series of deflated dividends for the deflators given by the agents' marginal rates of substitution, which also yield finite present values of wealth. In particular, binding no-short-sales constraints lead to positive prices of fiat money. These monetary equilibria are Pareto improvements but they are still inefficient.
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