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The Impact of Retail Payment Innovations on Cash Usage


  • Ben Fung
  • Kim Huynh
  • Leonard Sabetti


Many predict that innovations in retail payment may render cash obsolete. We investigate this possibility in the context of recent payment innovations such as contactless-credit and stored-value cards. We apply causal inference methods on the 2009 Bank of Canada Method of Payment survey, a representative sample of adult Canadians’ shopping behaviour for retail consumption over a three-day period. We find that using contactless credit cards and stored-value cards lead to a reduction in average cash usage for transactions both in terms of value and volume. Sensitivity analysis is undertaken and our estimates are robust to hidden bias.

Suggested Citation

  • Ben Fung & Kim Huynh & Leonard Sabetti, 2012. "The Impact of Retail Payment Innovations on Cash Usage," Staff Working Papers 12-14, Bank of Canada.
  • Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:12-14

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Helmut Stix, 2004. "How Do Debit Cards Affect Cash Demand? Survey Data Evidence," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 31(2), pages 93-115, June.
    2. Borzekowski, Ron & Kiser, Elizabeth K., 2008. "The choice at the checkout: Quantifying demand across payment instruments," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 889-902, July.
    3. Lippi, Francesco & Secchi, Alessandro, 2009. "Technological change and the households' demand for currency," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 222-230, March.
    4. Victor Stango, 2000. "Competition And Pricing In The Credit Card Market," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(3), pages 499-508, August.
    5. Carlos Arango & Kim Huynh & Leonard Sabetti, 2011. "How Do You Pay? The Role of Incentives at the Point-of-Sale," Staff Working Papers 11-23, Bank of Canada.
    6. Hiroshi Fujiki & Migiwa Tanaka, 2009. "Demand for Currency, New Technology and the Adoption of Electronic Money: Evidence Using Individual Household Data," IMES Discussion Paper Series 09-E-27, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan.
    7. Edwin Leuven & Barbara Sianesi, 2003. "PSMATCH2: Stata module to perform full Mahalanobis and propensity score matching, common support graphing, and covariate imbalance testing," Statistical Software Components S432001, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 01 Feb 2018.
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    Cited by:

    1. John Bagnall & David Bounie & Kim P. Huynh & Anneke Kosse & Tobias Schmidt & Scott Schuh, 2016. "Consumer Cash Usage: A Cross-Country Comparison with Payment Diary Survey Data," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 12(4), pages 1-61, December.
    2. Carlos Arango & Yassine Bouhdaoui & David Bounie & Martina Eschelbach & Lola Hernández, 2013. "Cash Management and Payment Choices: A Simulation Model with International Comparisons," Staff Working Papers 13-53, Bank of Canada.
    3. Briglevics, Tamás & Schuh, Scott, 2014. "This is what's in your wallet... and how you use it," Working Paper Series 1684, European Central Bank.
    4. Huynh, Kim P. & Schmidt-Dengler, Philipp & Stix, Helmut, 2014. "Whenever and Wherever: The Role of Card Acceptance in the Transaction Demand for Money," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 472, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
    5. Fujiki, Hiroshi & Tanaka, Migiwa, 2014. "Currency demand, new technology, and the adoption of electronic money: Micro evidence from Japan," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 125(1), pages 5-8.
    6. Carlos Arango & Angelika Welte, 2012. "The Bank of Canada’s 2009 Methods-of-Payment Survey: Methodology and Key Results," Discussion Papers 12-6, Bank of Canada.
    7. Damar, H. Evren & Gropp, Reint & Mordel, Adi, 2013. "Bank's financial distress, lending supply and consumption expenditure," SAFE Working Paper Series 39, Research Center SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe, Goethe University Frankfurt.
    8. Heng Chen & Marie-Hélène Felt & Kim Huynh, 2014. "Retail Payment Innovations and Cash Usage: Accounting for Attrition Using Refreshment Samples," Staff Working Papers 14-27, Bank of Canada.
    9. Ben Fung & Miguel Molico & Gerald Stuber, 2014. "Electronic Money and Payments: Recent Developments and Issues," Discussion Papers 14-2, Bank of Canada.
    10. Huynh, Kim P. & Schmidt-Dengler, Philipp & Stix, Helmut, 2014. "The Role of Card Acceptance in the Transaction Demand for Money," CEPR Discussion Papers 10183, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    11. Briglevics, Tamas & Schuh, Scott, 2014. "This is what's in your wallet... and here's how you use it," Working Papers 14-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    12. Fujiki, Hiroshi & Tanaka, Migiwa, 2017. "Choice of payment instrument for low-value transactions in Japan," International Cash Conference 2017 – War on Cash: Is there a Future for Cash? 162909, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    13. Christopher Henry & Kim Huynh & Rallye Shen, 2015. "2013 Methods-of-Payment Survey Results," Discussion Papers 15-4, Bank of Canada.
    14. repec:bof:bofrdp:urn:nbn:fi:bof-201511251450 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Arango, Carlos & Huynh, Kim P. & Sabetti, Leonard, 2015. "Consumer payment choice: Merchant card acceptance versus pricing incentives," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 130-141.

    More about this item


    Econometric and statistical methods; Financial services; Payment; clearing; and settlement systems;

    JEL classification:

    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • C35 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
    • C83 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Survey Methods; Sampling Methods

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