IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Machine Learning in Least-Squares Monte Carlo Proxy Modeling of Life Insurance Companies


  • Anne-Sophie Krah
  • Zoran Nikoli'c
  • Ralf Korn


Under the Solvency II regime, life insurance companies are asked to derive their solvency capital requirements from the full loss distributions over the coming year. Since the industry is currently far from being endowed with sufficient computational capacities to fully simulate these distributions, the insurers have to rely on suitable approximation techniques such as the least-squares Monte Carlo (LSMC) method. The key idea of LSMC is to run only a few wisely selected simulations and to process their output further to obtain a risk-dependent proxy function of the loss. In this paper, we present and analyze various adaptive machine learning approaches that can take over the proxy modeling task. The studied approaches range from ordinary and generalized least-squares regression variants over GLM and GAM methods to MARS and kernel regression routines. We justify the combinability of their regression ingredients in a theoretical discourse. Further, we illustrate the approaches in slightly disguised real-world experiments and perform comprehensive out-of-sample tests.

Suggested Citation

  • Anne-Sophie Krah & Zoran Nikoli'c & Ralf Korn, 2019. "Machine Learning in Least-Squares Monte Carlo Proxy Modeling of Life Insurance Companies," Papers 1909.02182,
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1909.02182

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Latest version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Christophe Dutang, 2017. "Some explanations about the IWLS algorithm to fit generalized linear models," Working Papers hal-01577698, HAL.
    2. Harvey, A C, 1976. "Estimating Regression Models with Multiplicative Heteroscedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 44(3), pages 461-465, May.
    3. Michael B. Gordy & Sandeep Juneja, 2010. "Nested Simulation in Portfolio Risk Measurement," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 56(10), pages 1833-1848, October.
    4. Simon N. Wood, 2003. "Thin plate regression splines," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 65(1), pages 95-114, February.
    5. Marx, Brian D. & Eilers, Paul H. C., 1998. "Direct generalized additive modeling with penalized likelihood," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 193-209, August.
    6. Anne-Sophie Krah & Zoran Nikolić & Ralf Korn, 2018. "A Least-Squares Monte Carlo Framework in Proxy Modeling of Life Insurance Companies," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(2), pages 1-26, June.
    7. Magnus, Jan R., 1978. "Maximum likelihood estimation of the GLS model with unknown parameters in the disturbance covariance matrix," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 281-312, April.
    8. Simon N. Wood & Yannig Goude & Simon Shaw, 2015. "Generalized additive models for large data sets," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 64(1), pages 139-155, January.
    9. Simon N. Wood & Zheyuan Li & Gavin Shaddick & Nicole H. Augustin, 2017. "Generalized Additive Models for Gigadata: Modeling the U.K. Black Smoke Network Daily Data," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 112(519), pages 1199-1210, July.
    10. Simon N. Wood & Natalya Pya & Benjamin Säfken, 2016. "Smoothing Parameter and Model Selection for General Smooth Models," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 111(516), pages 1548-1563, October.
    11. Breusch, T S & Pagan, A R, 1979. "A Simple Test for Heteroscedasticity and Random Coefficient Variation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1287-1294, September.
    12. Bauer, Daniel & Reuss, Andreas & Singer, Daniela, 2012. "On the Calculation of the Solvency Capital Requirement Based on Nested Simulations," ASTIN Bulletin, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(2), pages 453-499, November.
    13. Giampiero Marra & Simon N. Wood, 2012. "Coverage Properties of Confidence Intervals for Generalized Additive Model Components," Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, Danish Society for Theoretical Statistics;Finnish Statistical Society;Norwegian Statistical Association;Swedish Statistical Association, vol. 39(1), pages 53-74, March.
    14. S. N. Wood, 2000. "Modelling and smoothing parameter estimation with multiple quadratic penalties," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 62(2), pages 413-428.
    15. Clifford M. Hurvich & Jeffrey S. Simonoff & Chih‐Ling Tsai, 1998. "Smoothing parameter selection in nonparametric regression using an improved Akaike information criterion," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 60(2), pages 271-293.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1909.02182. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (arXiv administrators). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.