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Nested simulation in portfolio risk measurement

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  • Michael B. Gordy
  • Sandeep Juneja

Abstract

Risk measurement for derivative portfolios almost invariably calls for nested simulation. In the outer step one draws realizations of all risk factors up to the horizon, and in the inner step one re-prices each instrument in the portfolio at the horizon conditional on the drawn risk factors. Practitioners may perceive the computational burden of such nested schemes to be unacceptable, and adopt a variety of second-best pricing techniques to avoid the inner simulation. In this paper, we question whether such short cuts are necessary. We show that a relatively small number of trials in the inner step can yield accurate estimates, and analyze how a fixed computational budget may be allocated to the inner and the outer step to minimize the mean square error of the resultant estimator. Finally, we introduce a jackknife procedure for bias reduction and a dynamic allocation scheme for improved efficiency.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael B. Gordy & Sandeep Juneja, 2008. "Nested simulation in portfolio risk measurement," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2008-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2008-21
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Longstaff, Francis A & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 2001. "Valuing American Options by Simulation: A Simple Least-Squares Approach," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(1), pages 113-147.
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    5. Vadim Lesnevski & Barry L. Nelson & Jeremy Staum, 2007. "Simulation of Coherent Risk Measures Based on Generalized Scenarios," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 53(11), pages 1756-1769, November.
    6. Rothschild, Michael & Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1970. "Increasing risk: I. A definition," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 225-243, September.
    7. Peter W. Glynn & Ward Whitt, 1992. "The Asymptotic Efficiency of Simulation Estimators," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 40(3), pages 505-520, June.
    8. Kim, Joseph Hyun Tae & Hardy, Mary R., 2007. "Quantifying and Correcting the Bias in Estimated Risk Measures," ASTIN Bulletin, Cambridge University Press, vol. 37(2), pages 365-386, November.
    9. Rockafellar, R. Tyrrell & Uryasev, Stanislav, 2002. "Conditional value-at-risk for general loss distributions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1443-1471, July.
    10. Longstaff, Francis A & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 2001. "Valuing American Options by Simulation: A Simple Least-Squares Approach," University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson Graduate School of Management qt43n1k4jb, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA.
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    Keywords

    Financial risk management; Econometric models; Jackknife (Statistics);

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