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Deep Learning for Limit Order Books


  • Justin Sirignano


This paper develops a new neural network architecture for modeling spatial distributions (i.e., distributions on R^d) which is computationally efficient and specifically designed to take advantage of the spatial structure of limit order books. The new architecture yields a low-dimensional model of price movements deep into the limit order book, allowing more effective use of information from deep in the limit order book (i.e., many levels beyond the best bid and best ask). This "spatial neural network" models the joint distribution of the state of the limit order book at a future time conditional on the current state of the limit order book. The spatial neural network outperforms other models such as the naive empirical model, logistic regression (with nonlinear features), and a standard neural network architecture. Both neural networks strongly outperform the logistic regression model. Due to its more effective use of information deep in the limit order book, the spatial neural network especially outperforms the standard neural network in the tail of the distribution, which is important for risk management applications. The models are trained and tested on nearly 500 stocks. Techniques from deep learning such as dropout are employed to improve performance. Due to the significant computational challenges associated with the large amount of data, models are trained with a cluster of 50 GPUs.

Suggested Citation

  • Justin Sirignano, 2016. "Deep Learning for Limit Order Books," Papers 1601.01987,, revised Jul 2016.
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1601.01987

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Erhan Bayraktar & Michael Ludkovski, 2014. "Liquidation In Limit Order Books With Controlled Intensity," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(4), pages 627-650, October.
    2. Rama Cont & Adrien De Larrard, 2012. "Order book dynamics in liquid markets: limit theorems and diffusion approximations," Papers 1202.6412,
    3. Tristan Fletcher & John Shawe-Taylor, 2013. "Multiple Kernel Learning with Fisher Kernels for High Frequency Currency Prediction," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 42(2), pages 217-240, August.
    4. Jose Blanchet & Xinyun Chen, 2013. "Continuous-time Modeling of Bid-Ask Spread and Price Dynamics in Limit Order Books," Papers 1310.1103,
    5. Biais, Bruno & Hillion, Pierre & Spatt, Chester, 1995. " An Empirical Analysis of the Limit Order Book and the Order Flow in the Paris Bourse," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1655-1689, December.
    6. Martin D. Gould & Julius Bonart, 2015. "Queue Imbalance as a One-Tick-Ahead Price Predictor in a Limit Order Book," Papers 1512.03492,
    7. Zoltán Eisler & Jean-Philippe Bouchaud & Julien Kockelkoren, 2012. "The price impact of order book events: market orders, limit orders and cancellations," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(9), pages 1395-1419, September.
    8. Xuefeng Gao & S. J. Deng, 2014. "Hydrodynamic limit of order book dynamics," Papers 1411.7502,, revised Feb 2016.
    9. Aurélien Alfonsi & Alexander Schied, 2010. "Optimal trade execution and absence of price manipulations in limit order book models," Post-Print hal-00397652, HAL.
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    Cited by:

    1. Justin Sirignano & Apaar Sadhwani & Kay Giesecke, 2016. "Deep Learning for Mortgage Risk," Papers 1607.02470,, revised Mar 2018.
    2. Adamantios Ntakaris & Giorgio Mirone & Juho Kanniainen & Moncef Gabbouj & Alexandros Iosifidis, 2019. "Feature Engineering for Mid-Price Prediction with Deep Learning," Papers 1904.05384,, revised Jun 2019.
    3. Justin Sirignano & Rama Cont, 2018. "Universal features of price formation in financial markets: perspectives from Deep Learning," Papers 1803.06917,
    4. Justin Sirignano & Rama Cont, 2018. "Universal features of price formation in financial markets: perspectives from Deep Learning," Working Papers hal-01754054, HAL.
    5. repec:gam:jecnmx:v:6:y:2018:i:3:p:34-:d:158660 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Matthew F Dixon, 2017. "A High Frequency Trade Execution Model for Supervised Learning," Papers 1710.03870,, revised Dec 2017.

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