Micro to macro models for income distribution in the absence and in the presence of tax evasion
We investigate the effect of tax evasion on the income distribution and the inequality index of a society through a kinetic model described by a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The model allows to compute the global outcome of binary and multiple microscopic interactions between individuals. When evasion occurs, both individuals involved in a binary interaction take advantage of it, while the rest of the society is deprived of a part of the planned redistribution. In general, the effect of evasion on the income distribution is to decrease the population of the middle classes and increase that of the poor and rich classes. We study the dependence of the Gini index on several parameters (mainly taxation rates and evasion rates), also in the case when the evasion rate increases proportionally to a taxation rate which is perceived by citizens as unfair. Finally, we evaluate the relative probability of class advancement of individuals due to direct interactions and welfare provisions, and some typical temporal rates of convergence of the income distribution to its equilibrium state.
References listed on IDEAS
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- Sascha Hokamp & Michael Pickhardt, 2010.
"Income Tax Evasion in a Society of Heterogeneous Agents - Evidence from an Agent-based Model,"
International Economic Journal,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(4), pages 541-553.
- Sascha Hokamp & Michael Pickhardt, "undated". "Income Tax Evasion in a Society of Heterogeneous Agents – Evidence from an Agent-based Model," Working Papers 201035, Institute of Spatial and Housing Economics, Munster Universitary.
- Hokamp, Sascha & Pickhardt, Michael, 2010. "Income tax evasion in a society of heterogeneous agents: Evidence from an agent-based model," CAWM Discussion Papers 35, Center of Applied Economic Research Münster (CAWM), University of Münster.
- Mittone, Luigi, 2006. "Dynamic behaviour in tax evasion: An experimental approach," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 813-835, October.
- Luigi Mittone, 2002. "Dynamic behaviours in tax evasion. An experimental approach," CEEL Working Papers 0203, Cognitive and Experimental Economics Laboratory, Department of Economics, University of Trento, Italia.
- Georg Zaklan & Frank Westerhoff & Dietrich Stauffer, 2009. "Analysing tax evasion dynamics via the Ising model," Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, Springer;Society for Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, vol. 4(1), pages 1-14, June.
- Georg Zaklan & Frank Westerhoff & Dietrich Stauffer, 2008. "Analysing tax evasion dynamics via the Ising model," Papers 0801.2980, arXiv.org.
- Maria Letizia Bertotti & Giovanni Modanese, 2012. "Exploiting the flexibility of a family of models for taxation and redistribution," Papers 1207.6081, arXiv.org, revised Mar 2014.
- Kaniadakis, G., 2001. "Non-linear kinetics underlying generalized statistics," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 296(3), pages 405-425.
- M. Bertotti & G. Modanese, 2012. "Exploiting the flexibility of a family of models for taxation and redistribution," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 85(8), pages 1-10, August. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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