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Kinetic models for the trading of goods

  • G. Toscani
  • C. Brugna
  • S. Demichelis
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    In this paper we introduce kinetic equations for the evolution of the probability distribution of two goods among a huge population of agents. The leading idea is to describe the trading of these goods by means of some fundamental rules in price theory, in particular by using Cobb-Douglas utility functions for the binary exchange, and the Edgeworth box for the description of the common exchange area in which utility is increasing for both agents. This leads to a Boltzmann-type equation in which the post-interaction variables depend in a nonlinear way from the pre-interaction ones. Other models will be derived, by suitably linearizing this Boltzmann equation. In presence of uncertainty in the exchanges, it is shown that the solution to some of the linearized kinetic equations develop Pareto tails, where the Pareto index depends on the ratio between the gain and the variance of the uncertainty. In particular, the result holds true for the solution of a drift-diffusion equation of Fokker-Planck type, obtained from the linear Boltzmann equation as the limit of quasi-invariant trades.

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    File URL: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1208.6305
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    Paper provided by arXiv.org in its series Papers with number 1208.6305.

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    Date of creation: Aug 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1208.6305
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    1. Adrian Dragulescu & Victor M. Yakovenko, 2000. "Statistical mechanics of money," Papers cond-mat/0001432, arXiv.org, revised Aug 2000.
    2. A. Chatterjee & B. K. Chakrabarti, 2007. "Kinetic exchange models for income and wealth distributions," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 60(2), pages 135-149, November.
    3. Arnab Chatterjee & Bikas K. Chakrabarti, 2007. "Kinetic Exchange Models for Income and Wealth Distributions," Papers 0709.1543, arXiv.org, revised Nov 2007.
    4. Bertram Düring & Daniel Matthes & Giuseppe Toscani, 2008. "Kinetic Equations modelling Wealth Redistribution: A comparison of Approaches," CoFE Discussion Paper 08-03, Center of Finance and Econometrics, University of Konstanz.
    5. Arnab Chatterjee & Bikas K. Chakrabarti & Robin B. Stinchcombe, 2005. "Master equation for a kinetic model of trading market and its analytic solution," Papers cond-mat/0501413, arXiv.org, revised Aug 2005.
    6. Levy, Moshe & Levy, Haim & Solomon, Sorin, 1994. "A microscopic model of the stock market : Cycles, booms, and crashes," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 103-111, May.
    7. Arnab Chatterjee & Bikas K. Chakrabarti & S. S. Manna, 2003. "Pareto Law in a Kinetic Model of Market with Random Saving Propensity," Papers cond-mat/0301289, arXiv.org, revised Jan 2004.
    8. Amos Tversky & Daniel Kahneman, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Levine's Working Paper Archive 7656, David K. Levine.
    9. Chatterjee, Arnab & K. Chakrabarti, Bikas & Manna, S.S, 2004. "Pareto law in a kinetic model of market with random saving propensity," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 335(1), pages 155-163.
    10. David D. Friedman, 1990. "Price Theory: An Intermediate Text," Online economics textbooks, SUNY-Oswego, Department of Economics, number prin13.
    11. Gupta, Abhijit Kar, 2006. "Money exchange model and a general outlook," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 359(C), pages 634-640.
    12. B. Düring & G. Toscani, 2007. "Hydrodynamics from kinetic models of conservative economies," CoFE Discussion Paper 07-06, Center of Finance and Econometrics, University of Konstanz.
    13. S. Ispolatov & P.L. Krapivsky & S. Redner, 1998. "Wealth distributions in asset exchange models," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 2(2), pages 267-276, March.
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